Skip to main content

Full text of "... The code of Handsome Lake, the Seneca prophet"

See other formats

ducation Department Bulletin 

Published fortnightly by the University of the State of New York 

Entered as second-class matter June 24, 1908, at the Post Office at Albany, N. Y., under 

the act of July 16, 1894 

No. 530 


November i, 191 2 

New York State Museum 

John M. Clarke, Director 
Museum Bulletin 163 





Introduction 5 

Handsomr' Lake 9 

Effects uf Handsome Lake's 

teaching 14 

How the white race came to 

America 16 

, The Gaiwiio code 20 

Sections i to 130: The Great 

Message 27 

Part 2. Field notes on rites and 

ceremonies 81 

White dog sacrifice 85 

Ganeowo 94 

Cornplanting and maple thanks- 
giving lOI 

Legend of the coming of Death. . 105 
The funeral address 107 


The death feast no 

Medicine societies 113 

Dark dance or pygmy ceremony. . 1 19 

Society of otters 121 

Society of mystic animals 122 

The eagle society 124 

The bear society 125 

The Buffalo society 125 

Chanters for the dead 126 

Woman's society 126 

Sisters of the Dio''he'ko 126 

False face company 127 

Husk faces 129 

Iroquois sun myths 131 

Anecdotes of Cornplanter 136 

Key to pronunciation 139 

Index 145 









New York State Education Department 

Science Division, September ii, ic}ij 

Hon. Andrciu S. Draper LL.D. 

Commissioner of Education 

Sir: I transmit to you herewith and recommend for pubhcation 
as a bulletin of the State Museum, a manuscri])t entitled The Code 
of Ha)idso})ie Lake, the Seneca Prophet, i)rei)ared bv Arthur C. 
Parker, Archeologist. 

Very respectfully 

John M. Clarke 



commissioner's room 
Approi'cd for publication this i6tJi da\ of September icjtj 

Commissioner of Education 

Education Department Bulletin 

Published fortnightly by the University of the State of New York 

Entered as second-class matter June 24, 1908. at the Post Office at Albany, N. Y., 
under the act of July 16, 1894 

No. 530 ALBANY, N. Y. November i. 1912 

NeAV York State Museum 

John M. Clarke, Director 
Museum Bulletin 163 






The (iai'wiio' is the record of the teachinc^s of Handsome Lake, 
the Seneca propliet, and purports t(j l)e an exact exposition of the 
precepts that he tauglit (hiring- a term of sixteen years, ending with 
his death in JS15. It is the Ixisis of the so-called "new rehgion " 
of the Six Nations and is preached or recited at all the annual mid- 
winter festivals on the various Iroquois reservations in New York 
and ( )ntario that have adherents. These reservations are ( )non- 
daga, Tonawanda, Cattaraugus and Allegany in New ^'ork and 
(irand Ri\er and Muncytown in ( )ntario. 

There are six authorized "holders" of the (iai'wiio*' among 
whom are John (iihson ( Ganio'dai'io" ) and l^dward Cornplanler 
( Soson'dowa), Senecas, and h^rank- Logan (Adodar'ho), ( )non- 
daga. Chief Cornplanter is 1)\- far the most conservative though 
Chief (iihson seems to have the greater store of exi)lanatory mat- 
ter, often interpolating it during his ex])osition. Chief Lf)gan is a 
devout adherent of his religion and watches the waning of his 
prophet's teacliings with grave concern. His grief is like that of 
Hiawatha ( Haiyo"'wentha ) and inclines him to leave Onondaga 
for a region where the prophet will not he jeered. 

'Key to pronunciation of Indian words on page 139. See also Glossary, 
page 140. 


The stated times for the proclaiming of the Gai'wiio' are at the 
Six Nations' meeting in September and at the midwinter thanks- 
giving in the moon Nisko'wukni, between January 15th and Fel)ru- 
ary 15th. At such times the ()hgwe"onweka or " faithful In- 
dians " send for an expounder paying his traveling expenses and 
entertaining him during his sta}-. Usually reservations ''exchange '' 
])reachers, Cornplanter going to Grand River or Onondaga and 
Chief Gibson to Cattaraugus or Allegany. 

The time consumed in reciting the Gai'wiio' is always three days. 
At noon each day the expositor stops, for the sun is in midheaven 
and readv to descend. All sacred things must be done sede'tcia, 
early in the iiioniiiif/. Before sunrise each morning of the preach- 
ing the preacher stands at the fireplace in the long house and sings 
a song known as the Sun Song. This is an obedience to a command 
of the prophet \\ho ])romised that it should insure good weather for 
the day. " The winrl always dies down when I sing that song," 
affirms Chief CornjjJanter. 

During the recital of the (iai'wiio' the [jreacher stands at the 
firei>lace which serves as the altar. Sitting beside him is an assist- 
ant or some officer of the rites who holds a white wampum strand.' 
A select congregation sits on benches placed across the long house 
but the majority use the double row of seats around the walls. The 
women wear shawls over their heads and during affecting parts of 
the story hide their faces to conceal the tears. Some of the men, 
stirred to emotion, likewise are moxed to tears but are unable to 
hide them. Such emotion once detected by the auditors sometimes 
becomes contagious and serves as the means of scores repledging 
their allegiance to the old religion. In 190c;, for example. 136 
Allegany Senecas promised Chief Corni)lanter that they would stop 
drinking liquor and obev the commands of Handsome Lake. A'isit- 
ing Canadian Oneida Indians at the Grand River ceremonies, as 
a result of such a "" revival," petitioned for a visit of the Gai'wiio' 
preachers several years ago, saying that a portion of the Oneida 
of the Thames wished to return to the " old way." This some of 
them have done but they complain of the ])ersecution of their 
Christian tribesmen who threatened to burn their council house. In 
other ])laccs the case seems dift'erent and the " prophet's cause " is 
not es])Oused with much enthusiasm In- the younger element to 
whom the white man's world and thought jircsent a greater appeal. 

'The original Handsome Lake belt is still (lisi)laved at the religious cf)uncil 
at Tonawanda. (See plate 15.) 


Those who hve in coninuinitics in which the prophet's word is still 
strong are drawn to the ceremonies and to the recitals hecause it is 
a jxirt of their social system. 

Its great appeal to the older people is that it i)resents in their ow n 
language a system of moral jirecepts and exhortations that they can 
readily understand. The ])rophet, who is called " our t/rcat 
teacher " ( sedwa'gow'a'ne' ) , was a man of their own hlood, and the 
ground that he traversed was their ancestral domain. Patriotism 
and religious emotion mingle, and, when the story of the " great 
wrongs '" is rememl)ered, spur on a ready acceptance. The fraudu- 
lent treaty of Buffalo of 1838, for example, caused many of the 
Ruffalo Senecas to move to the Cattaraugus reservation. Here they 
settled at (lanun'dase' or Newtown, then a desolate wilderness. 
Their hitter wrongs made them hate wdiite men and to resist all 
missionary efforts. Today there is no mission chapel at Newtown. 
All attempts have failed.' Whether future ones will readily succeed 
is conjectural. The Indian there clings to his prophet and heeds 
the word of his teacher. At Cold Spring on the Allegany is an- 
other center of the " old time people."" On the Tonawanda reserva- 
tion this element is chiefly centered " down below "" at the long 
house. On the C)nondaga reservation the long house stands in the 
middle of the ( )nondaga village and the Cianufig'sisne'ha ( long 
house people) are distributed all over the reservation but perha])s 
chiefly on Hemlock road. It is an odd sight, provoking strange 
thoughts, to stand at the tomb of the i)rophet near the council house 
and watch each day the hundreds of automobiles that fly l)y over 
the State road. The Tuscarora and St Regis Indians are all nomin- 
ally Christians and they have no long houses. 

The ])resent form of the Gai'wiio' was determined b\' a council 
of its preachers some fifty years ago. They met at Cold S])ring, 
the old home of Handsome Lake, and com])are(l their \ersions. 
Several differences were found and each jireacher thought his ver- 
sion the correct one. At length Chief John jacket, a Cattaraugus 
Seneca, and a man well versed in the lore of his people, was chosen 
to settle forever the words and the form <>f the Gai'wiio". This 
he did by writing it out in the Seneca language l\v the method taught 
by Rev. Asher Wright, the Presbyterian missionary. The preachers 
assembled again, this time, according to Cornplanter. at Cattaraugus 
where they memorized the parts in which they were faulty. The 
original text was written on letter paper and now is entirely de- 

See Caswell, Our Life Ammi- llu' Tru(|U()is. Bustoii, i8(]8^ 


stroycd. Chief Jacket gave it to Henry Stevens and Chief Stevens 
passed it on to Chief Cornplanter who after he had memorized the 
teachings became careless and lost the papers sheet by sheet. Fear- 
ing that the true form might become lost Chief Cornplanter in 1903 
began to rewrite the Gai'wiio" in an old minute book of the Seneca 
Lacrosse Club. He had finished the historical introduction when 
the writer discovered what he had done. He was implored to finish 
it and give it to the State of Xew "S'ork for ])reservation. He was 
at first reluctant, fearing criticism, but after a council with the lead- 
ing men he consented to do so. He became greatly interested in 
the progress of the translation and is eager for the time to arrive 
when all white men may have the pri\ilcge of reading the " wonder- 
ful message " of the great i')rophet. 

The translation was made chiefly by William Bluesky. the native 
lay jireacher of the Baptist church. It was a lesson in religious 
toleration to see the Christian preacher and the " Instructor of the 
Gai'wiio' " side by side working o\er the sections of the code, for 
beyond a few smiles at certain passages, in which Chief Corn- 
l)lanter himself shared, Mr Bluesky never showed but that he 
reverenced every message and revelation of the four messengers. 



Handsome Lake, the Seneca prophet, was born in 1735 in the 
Seneca village of Conawagas (Gano"'wages) on the Genesee river 
opposite the present town of Avon, Livingston county. He is de- 
scribed by Buffalo Tom Jemison as a middle-sized man, slim and 
unhealthy looking. He was a member of one of the noble 
(hoya'ne") families in which the title of Ganio'dai'io' or 
Ska'niadar'io' is vested, thus holding the most honored Seneca title. 
What his warrior name was is not known and neither is it known 
just when he received the name and title by which he later became 
known. It is known, however, that he belonged to the Turtle clan. 
Later he was " borrowed " by the Wolves and reared by them. His 
half brother was the celebrated Cornplanter. 

The general story of his life may be gleaned from a perusal of 
his code, there being nothing of any consecjuence known of his life 
up to the time of his "vision." In 1794 his name appears on a 
treaty but whether he took active part in the debates that led up to 
it is not known. It is known from tradition and from his own 
story that he was a dissolute person and a miserable victim of the 
drink habit. The loss of the Genesee country caused him to go 
with his tribesmen to the Allegany river settlements. Here he 
became afflicted with a wasting disease that was aggravated by his 
continued use of the white man's fire water. For four years he 
lay a helpless invalid. His bare cabin scarcely afforded him shelter 
but later he was nursed by his married daughter who seems to have 
treated him with affection. His sickness afforded him much time 
for serious meditation and it is quite possible that some of his pre- 
cepts are the result of this opportunity. His own condition could 
not fail to impress him with the folly of using alcoholic drink and 
the wild whoops of the drunken raftsmen continually reminded him 
of the " demon's " power over thought and action. In the fore- 
word of his revelation he tells how he became as dead, and of the 
visitation of the " four beings " who revealed the will of the 

After this first revelation he seemed to recover and immediately 
began to tell the story of his visions. His first efforts were to con- 
demn the use of the '' first zvord " or the white man's " one'ga." 
He became a temperance reformer but his success came not from 
an appeal to reason but to religious instinct. The ravages of 


iiitenii)crance for a century had made serious inroads on the domestic 
and social hfe of his people. It had demoralized their national life 
and caused his brother chiefs to barter land for the means of a 
debauch. It threatened the extinction 'of his people. Such were 
the factors that induced the revelation. 

He was a man past the prime of life, a man weakened by disease 
and drunkenness. Yet he assumed the role of teacher and prophet. 
In two years" time his efiforts were conducive of so much reform 
that ihcy attracted the attention of President Jefferson who caused 
Secretar\- of War Dearborn to write a letter commending the teach- 
ings of Handsome Lake. The Seneca construed this as a recogni- 
tion of the prophet's right to teach and prophesy. The nature of 
the document is revealed in the following letter, a copy of which is 
in the possession of every religious chief of the Six Nations : 

Brothers — The President is pleased with seeing you all in 
good health, after so long a journey, and he rejoices in his heart 
that one of your own peoi)le has been employed to make you 
sober, good and happy : and that he is so well disposed to give 
you good advice, and to set before you so good examples. 

Brothers — If all the red people follow the advice of your 
friend and teacher, the Handsome Lake, and in future will be 
sober, honest, industrious and good, there can be no doubt but the 
dreat Spirit will take care of \ou and make you happy. 

This letter came as one of the results of Handsome Lake's visit 
in 1802, to Washington with a delegation of Seneca and Onondaga 
chiefs. The successful results of' his two years' ministry became 
more fruitful as time went on. In 1809 a number of members of 
the Society of Friends visiting Onondaga left the following record 
of the effects of the ])rophet's teachings: " \\'e were informed, not 
only by themselves, but by the interpreter, that they totally refrained 
from the use of ardent spirits for about nine years, and that none 
of the natives will touch it." 

The success of Handsome Lake's teachings did much to crystal- 
lize the Iroquois as a distinct social group. The encroachments of 
civilization had demoralized the old order of things. The old be- 
liefs, though still held, had no coherence. The ancient system had 
no longer definite organization and thus no specific hold. 

The frauds which the Six Nations had suffered, the loss of land 
and of ancient seats had reduced them to poverty and disheartened 
them. The crushing blow of Sullivan's campaign was yet felt and 
the wounds then inflicted were fresh. The national order of the 
Confederacy was destroyed. Poverty, the sting of defeat, the loss 
of ancestral homes, the memory of broken promises and the hostility 


of the white settlers all conspired to bring despair. There is 
not much energy in a desjjairing nation who see themselves hopeless 
and alone, the greedy eyes of their conquerors fastened on the few 
acres that remain to them. It was little wonder that the Indian 
sought forgetfulnes.s in the' trader's rum. 

As a victim of such conditions, Handsome Lake stalked ivom the 
gloom holding up as a beacon of hope his divine message, the 
Gai'wiio'. He became in spite of his detractors a commanding 
figure. He created a new system, a thing to think about, a thing to 
discuss, a thing to believe. His message, whether false or true, was 
a creation of their own and afforded a nucleus about which they 
could cluster themselves and fasten their hopes. A few great 
leaders such as Red Jacket denounced him as an imposter Init this 
only afforded the necessary resistant element. The angels then 
conveniently revealed that Red jacket was a schemer and a seller 
of land and an unhappy wretch doomed to carry burdens of soil 
through eternity as a punishment for perfidy. This was enough 
to create a prejudice among the Indians and one that lasts to this 
day among all classes of the reservation Iroc|uois. A few others 
endeavored to expose the prophet but this action only created a 
large faction that stood strongly for him. 

Whatever may be the merits of the prophet's teachings, they 
created a revolution in Irotjuois religious life. With the spread of 
his doctrines the older religious system was overturned until today 
it is to be doubted that a single adherent remains. Handsome 
Lake's followers were few at first. He was despised, ridiculed and 
subject to bodily insults. Certain failures to live up to a precon- 
ceived idea of what a prophet should be caused a continual perse- 
cution. Cornplanter, his half brother, continually harassed him, as 
may be seen in the relation. Some of his failures, real or fancietl, 
caused calumny to be heaped upon him and they are current today 
among those inclined to scoff. It is said that he learned his ideas 
of morality from his nephew, Henry ( )l)ail ( Abeal ) , who had been 
at school in Philadelphia. Henrv, it is said, took him up in the 
mountains and explained the Christain 15il)le to him, thus gi\ing 
him the idea of devising the ( iai'wiio". ( )ther tales are tliat he failed 
to find the great serpent in the bed of the Allegany river though he 
pretended to locate it and charge it with having sj)read disease 
among the people, and that he erected an idol on an island in the 
river, a thing which from more authentic accounts he did not do. 

Previous to his residence at Tonawanda he had lixed ten ^•ears 


at Cornplaiiter's town and two years at Cold Spring. At the latter 
place he made so many enemies that he resolved to leave with his 
followers. This was in about 1812. With him went his chief fol- 
lowers and his family, among them his grandson Sos'heowa who 
later became his successor. 

Sos'heowa was born in 1774 in the old town of Ganowa'ges, the 
home of both Cornplanter and Handsome Lake. Lewis H. Morgan, 
who knew him well, describes him as " an eminently pure and 
virtuous man . . . devoted ... to the duties of his office, 
as the spiritual guide and teacher of the lroc|Uois." 

Morgan gives a full account of the recitation of Sosehawa at 
the mourning council at Tonawanda in 1848^ and credits the 
translation to Sosehawa's grandson, Ely S. Parker (Ha-sa- 

During the prophet's four years' stay at Tonawanda he became 
many times discouraged, " reluctant to tell," and though the people 
gradually became more friendly, he seemed loath at times to pro- 
claim his revelations. Some Christian Indians have explained this 
as caused by an uneasy conscience that came with greater knowl- 
edge of the white man's religion but there is no evidence of this. 
During this stay he was invited to visit the Onondaga and this he 
did, though according to his visions it necessitated the singing of 
his ■■ lliird song," which meant that he should die. In a vision 
which he related he saw the four messengers who said " They have 
stretched out their hands pleading for you to come and they are 
your own people at Onondaga" (section 122). 

When the word was given, Handsome Lake with a few^ chosen 
followers started to walk to Onondaga. His prediction of his own 
death, however, caused many more to join the party when it became 
definitely known he had started. The first camping spot mentioned 
is at the old village, (iano'"wa'ges. Here upon retiring he com- 
manded the comjjany to assemble " early in the morning." At the 
morning gatliering he announced a vision. It had been of a path- 
way covered with grass. At the next camp, at Ganundasa^ga, his 
vision was of a w^oman speaking. On the borders of Onondaga he 
discovered that he had lost a favorite knife and went back to find 
it. He was evidently much depressed and approached Onondaga 
with a reluctance that almost betokened fear. Upon his arrival he 

1 Morgan, League, p. 233, Rochester, 1851. 

2 Later known as Dioni'hoga'we, Door Keeper, a sachem of the Seneca. 
Parker was Morgan's collaborator in writing the League of the Iroquois. 


was unal)le to address the people because of his distress, so that it 
was said, " Our meeting is only a gathering about the fireplace." 
A game of lacrosse was played to cheer him but he could only re- 
spond to the honor by saying: " I will soon go to my new home. 
Soon will I step into the new world for there is a plain pathway 
before me leading there." He repaired to his cainn at the foot of 
the hill, in sight of the council house and there after a most dis- 
tressing illness " commenced his walk " over the path that had 
appeared before him. He was buried under the council house with 
impressive ceremonies and his tomb may still be seen though the 
house has been removed. A granite monuiuent, erected by the Six 
Nations, marks his resting place. 

Handsome Lake lived to see his people divided into two factions, 
one that clung to the old order and one that followed him. After 
his death the older order gradually faded out of existence, either 
coming over to the New Religion or e'ubracing Christianity. Thus 
by the time of the Civil War in 1861 there were only the two ele- 
ments, the Christians and the followers of Handsome Lake. They 
stand so arrayed today but with the " new religionists " gradually 
diminishing in number. The force of Handsome Lake's teaching, 
however, is still felt and affects in some way all the New York 
reservations, except perhaps St Regis. 

Handsome Lake as the founder of a religious system occupied 
such a position that his followers place implicit confidence in that 
system whatever his personal weaknesses and failures may have 

He made mistakes," said Chief Cornplanter, " manv mistakes, 
so it is reported, but he was only a man and men are liable to com- 
mit errors. Whatever he did and said of himself is of no conse- 
quence. What he did and said by the direction of the four 
messengers is everything — it is our religion. Ganiodaiio was weak 
in many points and sometimes afraid to do as the messengers told 
him. He was almost an unwilling servant. He made no divine 
claims, he did not j)ose as infallil)le nor even truly virtuous. He 
merely proclaimed the Ciai'wiio' and that is what we follow, not 
him. W^e do not worship hiiu, we worship one great Creator. We 
honor and revere our prophet and leader, we re\ere the four 
messengers who watch over us — but the Creator alone do we 
worship." Such is the argument of his followers. 



There is no record of ilandsome Lake's visiting Tuscarora, 
( )nei(la or St Regis. I'lic result is that these reservations contani 
only Indians who are nominally Christian. The Oneida are virtually 
citizens, the Tuscarora as capable of being so as any community of 
whites, and the St Regis progressive enough not only to use all 
their own lands hut to rent fron: the whites. Their " Indianess " 
is largelv gone. They have no Indian customs though they are 
affected by Indian folk-thought and exist as Indian communities. 
governing theirselves and receiving annuities. Their material 
culture is now largely that of the whites about theiu and they are 
Indians onlv because tliey dwell in an Indian rcserxalion. ])()ssess 
Indian blood and sj)eak an Irocjuois dialect. 

in contrast to these reservations where the Indian has become 
" whitemanized " stand out the reservations of the Seneca and 
Onondaga. ( )n the latter the folk-ways and the " Indian way of 
thinking " struggle with the white man's civilization for supremacy. 
The Indian of the old way is arrayed against the Indian of the 
new way. The conservative Indian calls his Christian brother a 
traitor to his race, a man ashamed of his ancestors, a man who 
condones all the wrongs the wdiite man has done his people, and a 
man who is at best an imitator and a poor one. On the other 
hand the Christain Indian calls his " feather wearing " (Adistowae') 
brother. " a blind man in the wilderness," a nonprogressive, behind 
the times, a man ho]K'lessl}- struggling against fate, a heathen and 
a ])agan. lAen so. the followers of Handsome Lake constitute an 
influential element and the other Indians are affected bv their be- 
liefs wIk'Ukt llic\- are willing or not. As was remarkccl in the 
beginning. Ilandsome Lake crystallized as a social unit the peoj)le 
whom he taught and those who follow him today constitute a unit 
that holds itself at variance with the social and acce])led econoiuic 
systetus of the white communities about them. Thev assert that 
they have a perfect right to use their own system. Thev argue that 
the white man's teachings are not consistent with his ])ractice and 
thus only one of their schemes for deceiving them. riie\- assert 
that they wish to remriin Indians and have a right to be so and to 
believe their own i)roj)het. They are largely instrumental in con- 
serving the systems i)eculiarly Indian and though they are a 
minority they control a majority of the offices in the nations to 
which they belong. .Among the Onondaga and Tonawanda Seneca 


they hold most of the offices. In connection with the Allegany 
and Cattaraugus Seneca I use the word control, advisedly, since 
there may l)e times when the majority of councilors may l)e of the 
Christian party. Even so, the " conservative "' party controls 
enough to maintain the system that they deem right. 

When their poverty is urged as an argument against their 
religion and social syste n they assert that the true follower of the 
prophet will be poor and suffer much in this world Init that his 
condition in the " new world above the sky " will be in direct con- 
trast. They therefore esteem poverty, lowly surroundings and 
sickness as a sure indication of a rich heavenly reward and point 
to the better material surroundings and wealth of their brethren of 
the white man's way as an evidence that the devil has bought them. 

The writer of this sketch has no complaint against the simple 
folk who have long been his friends. For a greater portion of his 
lifetime he has mingled with them, lived in their homes and re- 
ceived many honors from them. He has attended their ceremonies, 
heard their instructors and learned much of the old-time lore. 
Never has he been more royally entertained than by them, never 
was hospitality so genuine, never was gratitude more earnest, never 
were friends more sincere. There is virtue in their hearts and a 
sincerity and frankness that is refreshing. If only there were no 
engulfing " new way '" and no modern rush, no need for progress, 
there could scarcely be a Itetter devised system than theirs. It 
was almost perfectly fitted for the conditions which it was designed 
to meet, but now the new way has surrounded them, everything 
which they have and use in the line of material things, save a few 
simple maize foods and their ceremonial paraphernalia, is the 
product of the white man's hand and brain. The social and 
economic and moral order all about them is the white man's, not 
theirs. How long can they oppose their way to the overwhelming 
forces of the modern world and exist? How long will they seek to 
meet these overwhelming forces with those their ancestors devised 
but devised not with a knowledge of what the future would re- 
quire? My Indian friends will answer, " Of these things we know 
nothing : we know only that the Great Ruler will care for us as long 
as we are faithful." Asked about the clothes they wear, the houses 
they live in, the long house they worship in, thev replv, "All these 
things may be made of the white man's material but they are out- 
side things. Our religion is not one of paint or feathers : it is a 
thing of the heart." That is the answer; it is a thing of the heart 
— who can change it ? 





Now this happened a long time ago and across the great salt sea, 
odji''ke'dagi'ga, that stretches east. There is. so it seems, a world 
there and soil like ours. There in the great queen's country where 
swarmed many people — so many that they crowded upon one 
another and had no place for hunting — there lived a great queen. 
Among her servants was a young preacher of the queen's religion, 
so it is said. 

Now this happened. The great queen requested the preacher to 
clean some old volumes which she had concealed in a hidden chest. 
So he obeyed and when he had cleaned the last book, which was at 
the bottom of the chest, he opened it and looked about and listened, 
for truly he had no right to read the book and wanted no one to 
detect him. He read. It was a great book and told him many 
things which he never knew before. Therefore he was greatly 
worried. He read of a great n^an who had been a prophet and the 
son of the Great Ruler. He had been born on the earth and the 
white men to whom he preached killed him. Now moreover the 
prophet had promised to return and become the King. In three 
days he was to come and then in forty to start his kingdom. This 
did not happen as his followers had expected and so they despaired. 
Then said one chief follower. " Surely he will come again some- 
time, we must watch for him." 

Then the young preacher became worried for he had discovered 
that his god was not on earth to see. He was angry moreover 
because his teachers had deceived liim. So then he went to the 
chief of preachers and asked him how it was that he had deceived 
him. Then the chief preacher said, " Seek him out and vou will find 
him for indeed we think he does live on earth." Even so. his heart 
was angry but he resolved to seek. 

On the morning of the next day he looked out from the opening 
of his room and saw out in the river a beautiful island and he 
marveled that he had never seen it before. He continued to gaze 
and as he did he saw among the trees a castle of gold and he marveled 
that he had not seen the castle of gold before. Then he said, 
" So beautiful a castle on so beautiful an isle must indeed be the 

Plate 2 

So-son-do-\va or Edward edrnplanler, the Seneca teacher of Handsome 

Lake's Code 

Plate 3 

4, ^• 

.P f. ■ 

K ^ "' I 

■-,■■, .yiii,^j<^,. iL^i^>^^midm^,i:m^ 

The Xewtuwn Liiiy ilouse, t'attaraugus reservaticm. ('liiL'f Cornplanter 

lives near l)v. 

I'lioto by Gc-urge W. Kelloij 

The Tdiiawanda Seneca Long House, near Akron, N. Y. 

Plate 4 

A typical family of tlie Si 

)ranch of the " vaiiisiiin.u race " 

I'liotus l,y M. K. ll.irMiiKl. 

A typical family at Newtown, Cattaraugus reservation. These people are 
all followers of Handsome Lake. 

Plate 5 

Ononda,!j,a Long House, Onoiulaga reservation. The Pruphet's toml) is 
just below the spot marked + 

The Long ll<nise at I'ine W'jods, Cattaraugus 

Plate 6 

Graves near the Onondaga L(ing House near Six Nations, P. O. Ontario. 
In the lower right corner the charred embers of the grave tire may he 

One end of the upper Cayuga Long House near Ohsweken. Ont. Note the 
Feast Lodge in the rear. 





Plate 8 

Long House of the Canadian Onondai;a, (irand River reservation. It is 
here that the feasts and thanksgivings for the products of the fields are 
held In' the Canadian Dnondaga. 

r i- 

•| ■■#• 


f •v--.Inni^^^^^^''''* !'^"^'.^^ ■ •■:» - 'I 

""'1 J >*.-,«.»i4p *^ 

Environs of the Cavuga Long House, Grand River, Ontario, Canada 

Plate 9 

Tomi) of Handsome Lake, near Onondaga cnuncil house 


abode of him whom I seek." Immediately he put on his clothes 
and went to the men who had taught him and they wondered and 
said, " Indeed it must be as you say." So then together they went 
to the river and when they came to the shore they saw that it was 
spanned by a bridge of shining gold. Then one of the great 
preachers fell down and read from his book a long prayer and aris- 
ing he turned his back upon the island and fled for he was afraid 
to meet the lord. Then with the young man the other crossed the 
bridge and he knelt on the grass and he cried loud and groaned his 
prayer but when he arose to his feet he too fled and would not 
look again at the house — the castle of gold. 

Then was the young man disgusted and boldl}- he strode toward 
the house to attend to the business which he had in mind. He did 
no't cry or pray and neither did he fall to his knees for he was not 
afraid. He knocked at the door and a handsome smiling man 
welcomed him in and said, " Do not be afraid of me." Then the 
smiling man in the castle of gold said, " I have wanted a young man 
such as you for some time. You arc wise and afraid of nobody. 
Those older men were fools and would not have listened to me 
(direct) though they might listen to some one whom I had in- 
structed. Listen to me and most truly you shall be rich. Across 
the ocean that lies toward the sunset is another world and a great 
country and a people whom you have never seen. Those people 
are virtuous, they have no unnatural evil habits and they are 
honest. A great reward is yours if you will help me. Here are five 
things that men and women enjoy ; take them to these people and 
make them as white men are. Then shall you be rich and powerful 
and you may become the chief of all great preachers here." 

So then the voung man took the bundle containing the five 
things and made the bargain. He left the island and looking back 
saw that the bridge had disappeared and before he had turned his 
head the castle had gone and then as he looked the island itself 

Now then the young man wondered if indeed he had seen his lord 
for his mind had been so full of business that he had forgotten to 
ask. So he opened his bundle of five things and found a flask of 
rum, a pack of playing cards, a handful of coins, a violin and a 
decayed leg bone. Then he thought the things very strange and 
he wondered if indeed his lord would send such gifts to the people 
across the water of the salt lake ; but he remembered his promise. 


The young man looked about for a suitable man in whom to con- 
fide his secret and after some searching he found a man named 
Columbus and to him he confided the story. Then did Columbus 
secure some big canoes and raise up wings and he sailed away. He 
sailed many days and his warriors became angry and cried that the 
chief who led them was a deceiver. They planned to behead him 
but he heard of the plan and promised that on the next day he 
would discover the new country. The next morning came and then 
did Columbus discover America. Then the boats turned back and 
reported their find to the whole world. Then did great ships come, 
a good many. Then did they bring many bundles of the five things 
and spread the gifts to all the men of the great earth island. 

Then did the invisible man of the river island laugh and then 
did he say, " These cards will make them gamble away their wealth 
and idle their time : this money will make them dishonest and 
covetous and they will forget their old laws : this fiddle will make 
them dance with their arms about their wives and bring about a 
time of tattling and idle gossip ; this rum will turn their minds to 
foolishness and they will barter their country for baubles ; then 
will this secret poison cat the life from their blood and crumble 
their bones." So said the invisible man and he was HanTsse'ono, 
the evil one. 

Now all this was done and when afterward he saw the havoc and 
the misery his work had done he said, " T think I have made an 
enormous mistake for I did not dream that these people would 
sufifer so." Then did even the devil himself lament that his evil 
had been so great. 

So after the swarms of white men came and misery was thrust 
upon the Ongwe-oweh the Creator was sorry for his own people 
whom he had molded from the soil of the earth of this Great 
Island, and he spoke to his four messengers and many times they 
tried to tell right men the revelations of the Creator but none would 
listen. Then they found our head man sick. Then thev heard him 
speak to the sun and to the moon and they saw his sickness. Then 
they knew that he suffered because of the cunning evils that 
HanTsse'ono had given the Ongwe-oweh. So then they knew that 
he was the one. He was the one who should hear and tell Gai'wiio'. 
But when danio'dai'io' si)oke the evil being ceased his lament and 
sought to obstruct Gai'wiio', for he claimed to be master. 


The (iai'wiicj" came from HodiiinokMoo" lled'iobc'. the Great 
Ruler, to the 1 huHo^ffgeono", tlie four messeu<^ers. l-'rcim ihem it 
was transmitted to (ianio'dai'io', Handsome Lake who tau,^du it to 
Skantlyo"''gwad! ( ( )\ven Rlacksnake) and to his own t^^randson, 
Sos'heowa (James Johnson). I'.lacksnake tau<ijht it to lienrv 
Stevens ( Ganishando ). who taui^ht it to Soson'(h)wa, I',dward 
Cornplanter. " So I know that I have the true words and 1 preach 
them," adds Cornplanter. 



The beginning was in Yai''kni [May], early in the moon, in the 
year 1800. 

It commences now. 


The place is^ Ohi'io' [on the Allegany river], in Diono'sade'gi 
[Cornplanter village]. 

Now it is the harvest time, so he- said. 

Now a party of people move. They go down in canoes the 
Allegany river. They plan to hunt throughout the autumn and the 
winter seasons. 

Now they land at Ganowon'go" [Warren, Pa.] and set up camp. 

The weather changes and they move again. They go farther 
down the river. The ice melts opening up the stream and so they 
go still farther down. They land at Diondega [Pittsburgh]. It is 
a little village of white people [literally, " our younger brethren "^]. 
Here they barter their skins, dried meat and fresh game for strong 
drink. They put a barrel of it in their canoes. Now all the canoes 
are lashed together like a raft. 

Now all the men become filled with strong drink (goniga'nongi). 
They yell and sing like demented people. Those who are in the 
middle canoes do this.** 

Now they are homeward bound. 

Now when they come to where they had left their wives and 
children these embark to return home. They go up Cornplanter 
creek, Awe'gao". 

Now that the party is home the men revel in strong drink and 
are very quarrelsome. Because of this the families become 
frightened and move away for safety. So from many places in the 
bushlands camp fires send up their smoke. 

Now the drunken men run yelling through the village and there 
is no one there except the drunken men. Now they are beastlike 

^ The present tense is always used by Chief Cornplanter. 

2 The narrator, Handsome Lake. 

^ The Seneca term is Honio"o"', meaning " our younger brother." 

^ The into.xicated men were put in the middle canoes to prevent tlicir 
jumping into the water. The more sober men paddled from tlie outer 
canoes. This debauchery was common among the Six Nations at the be- 
ginning of the 19th century. 



and run about without clothing and all have weapons to injure 
those whom they meet. 

Now there are no doors left in the houses for they have all been 
kicked ofif. So, also, there are no fires in the village and have not 
been for many days. Now the men full of strong drink have 
trodden in the fireplaces. They alone track there and there are no 
fires and their footprints are in all the fireplaces. 

Now the dogs yelp and cry in all the houses for they are hungry. 

So this is what happens.^ 


And now furthermore a man becomes sick. Some strong power 
holds him. 

Now as he lies in sickness he meditates and longs that he might 
rise again and walk upon the earth. So he implores the Great 
Ruler to give hi n strength that he may walk upon this earth again. 
And then he thinks how evil and loathsome he is before the Great 
Ruler. He thinks how he has been evil ever since he had strength 
in this world and done evil ever since he had been able to work. 
But notwithstanding, he asks that he may again walk. 

So now this is what he sang: O'gi'we,- Ye'onda'tha,^ and 
Gone'owo".^ Now while he sings he has strong drink with him. 

Now it comes to his mind that perchance evil has arisen because 
of strong drink and he resolves to use it nevermore. Now he con- 
tinually thinks of this every day and every hour. Yea. he con- 
tinually thinks of this. Then a time comes and he craves drink 
again for he thinks that he can not recover his strength without it. 

Now two ways he thinks : what once he did and whether he will 
ever recover. 


Now he thinks of the things he sees in the daylight. 

The sunlight comes in and he sees it and he says, " The Creator 
made this sunshine." So he thinks. Now when he thinks of the 
sunshine and of the Creator who made it he feels a new hope within 
him and he feels that he may again be on his feet in this world. 

Now he had previously given up hope of life but now he begs to 
see the light of another day. He thinks thus for night is coming. 

^ See plate lo. 

- The Death chant. 

^ The Women's song. 

* The Harvest song, see p. 95. 


So now he makes an invocation lliat he may be able to endure the 

Now he hves through the night and sees another day. So then he 
pravs that he may see the night and it is so. Because of these things 
he now beheves that the Great Ruler has heard him and he gives 
him thanks. 

Now the sick man's bed is beside the fire. At night he looks up 
through the chimney hole and sees the stars and he thanks the 
Great Ruler that he can see them for he knows that he. the Creator, 
has made them.^ 

Now it comes to him that because (jf these new thoughts he may 
obtain helj) to arise from his bed and walk again in this world. 
Then again he despairs that he will ever see the new day because 
of his great weakness. Then again he has confidence that he will 
see the new day, and so he lives and sees it. 

For everything he sees he is thankful. He thinks of the Creator 
and thanks him for the things he sees. Now he hears the birds 
singing and he thanks the (ireat Ruler for their music. 

So then he thinks that a thankful heart will help him. 

Now this man has been sick four years but he feels that he will 
now recover. 

And the name of the sick man is ( u'uiio'dai'io'- a council chief 


Now at this time the daughter of the sick man and her husband 
are sitting outside the house in the shed and the sick man is within 
alone. The door is ajar. Now the daughter and her husband are 
cleaning beans for the planting. Suddenly they hear the sick man 
exclaim, " Niio'! "■' Then they hear him rising in his bed and they 
think how he is but yellow skin and dried bones from four years of 
sickness in bed. Now they hear him walking over the floor toward 
the door. Then the daughter looks up and sees her father coming 
out of doors. He totters and she rises (juickly to catch him but he 
falls dying. Now they lift him up and carry hi;n back within the 
house and dress him for burial. 

Now he is dead. 

1 Sec plate 1 1. 

2 Handsome Lake, one of tlie fifty liereditary sachems, or lords, lioya'ne 
means, perfect one or noble, and is translated lord by the Canadian Six 
Nations. See Hale, Book of Rites, p. 31, footnote. 

5 Meaning, So be it. 



Then the daughter says to her husband, " Run (|uickly and notify 
his nephew, Taa'wonyas.' that he who has lain so many years in bed 
has gone. Bid him come imme(hatcl\." 

So the husl)and runs to carry the message to Taa'wonyas. And 
Taa'wonvas says, " Truly so. Now hasten to (raiant'waka,- the 
brother of the dead man and say that he who lay sick for so many 
years is dead. So now go and say this." 

So the husband goes alone to where ( iaiant'waka lives and when 
he has spoken the wife says, " (iaiant'waka is at the island plant- 
ing." So he goes there and says, " ( iaiant'waka vour brother is 
dead. He who was sick for so many years is dead. (Jo at once U) 
his bed." 

Then (iaiant'waka answers, "Truly, but tirst I must finish 
covering this small patch of seed. Then when I hoe it over 1 will 

Now he who notifies is Hatgwi'yot, the husband of the daughter 
of Cianio'dai'io'. So now he returns home. 

Now everyone hearing of the death of the sick man goes to 
where he lies. 

Now first comes Taa'wonyas. He touches the dead man on every 
part of his body. Now he feels a warm spot on his chest and then 
Taa'wonyas says, " Hold back your sadness, friends," for he had 
discovered the warm s])0t and because of this he tells the people 
that perhaps the dead man may revive. Now many people are 
weeping and the speaker sits down by his head. 

Now after some time (iaiant'waka comes in and feels over the 
body of the dead and he too discovers the warm spot Init says 
nothing but sits silently down at the feet of the dead man. 

And for many hours no one speaks. 

Now it is the early norning and the dew is drying. This is a 
time of trouble for he lies dead. 

Now continually Taa'wc5nyas feels over the body "of the dead 
man. ble notices that the warm spot is spreading. Now the time 
is noon and he feels the warm blood ])nlsing in his veins. Now his 
lireath CdUies and now he opens his eyes. 

1 Meaning, Needle or Awl Breaker, one of the fifty sachems. 

2 Meaning, Planter, commonly called Cornplanter, the half hrother of 
Handsome Lake. See p 136. 



Now Taii'wonyas is speaking. "Are you well? What think 
you? (Isege"' onent'gayei' henesni'goe') ? '" 

Now the people notice that the man is moving his lips as if speak- 
ing but no words come. Now this is near the noon hour. Now all 
are silent while Taa'wonyas asks again, " Aly uncle, are you feeling 
well ? ( onigent'gaiye" ) ." 

Then comes the answer, " Yes I believe myself well." So these 
are the first words Ganio'dai'io' spoke ( " Iwi" nai' o'ne't'gai'ye 
he"' nekni'goe")." 

Now then he speaks again saying, " Never have I seen such 
wondrous visions ! Now at first 1 heard some one speaking. Some 
one spoke and said. ' Come out awhile ' and said this three times. 
Now since I saw no one speaking I thought that in my sickness I 
myself was speaking but I thought again and found that it was 
not my voice. So I called out boldly, ' Niio' ! " and arose and went 
out and there standing in the clear swept sjxice I saw three men 
clothed in fine clean raiment. Their cheeks were painted red and 
it seemed that they had been ])ainted the day before. Only a few 
feathers were in their bonnets. All three were alike and all seemed 
middle aged. Never before have I seen such handsome command- 
ing men and they had in one hand bows and arrows as canes. Now 
in their other hands were huckleberry bushes and the berries were 
of every color. 

" Then said the beings, addressing me, ' He who created the 
world at the beginning employed us to come to earth. Our visit 
now is not the only one we ha\e made. He commanded us saying 
" (io once more down ui)on the earth and ] this time] visit him who 
thinks of me. He is grateful for my creations, moreover he wishes 
to rise from sickness and walk | in health | u])on the earth. (]o vou 
and lieljj him to recover." ' 1"hcn said the messengers, ' Take these 
berries and eat of every color. They will give you strength and 
your pco])lc with us will hcl|) you rise.' So I took and ate the 
berries. Then said the beings. ' ( )n the morrow we will have it that 
a fire will be in the bushes and a medicine steeped to give you 
strength. We will appoint Odjis'kwathe'" and ( iayiintgogwus,- a 
ran and his wife, to make the medicine. Now they are the best of 
all the medicine people. Early in the morning we will see them 
and at that time you will have the medicine for your use, and be- 
fore noon the unused medicine will be cast awav because vou will 

^ Dry Pudding. - Dipped Tobacco. 



have recovered. Now moreover before noon many people will 
gather at the council house. These people will be your relatives 
and will see you. They will have gathered the early strawberries^ 
and made a strawl)erry feast, and moreover will have strawberry 
wine sweetened with sugar. Then will all drink the juice of the 
berry and thank the Creator for your recovery and moreover they 
severally will call upon you by your name as a relative according 
as }ou are.' 

" Now when the day came I went as a]ipointed and all the people 
saw me coming and it was as predicted." 


" Now the messengers spoke to me and said that they would now 
tell me how things ought to be upon the eartli. The^' said: 'Do 
not allow any one to say that you have had great fortune in being 
able to rise again. The favor of the four beings is not alone for 
you and the Creator is willing to helji all mankind." 

" Now on that same day the Great Feather- and the Harvest 
dances were to be celebrated and at this time the beings told me 
that my. relatives would restore me. ' Your feelings and spirits 
are low,' they said, " and nuist Ije aroused. Then will you 
obtain power to reco\'er.' X'erily the servants of the Creator 
( Hadio"ya''geono" ) said this. Now moreover they com nanded 
that henceforth dances of this same kind should be held and thanks- 
giving offered whenever the strawberries were ripe. Furthermore 
they said that the juice of the berry must be drunk by the children 
and the aged and all the people. I'ruly all must drink of the berry 
juice, for they said that the sweet water of the berries was a 
medicine and that the early strawberries were a great medicine. 
So they bade me tell this story to my people when I move upon the 
earth again. Now thev said, ' We shall continually reveal things 
unto you. We, the servants of him who made us, say that as he 
employed us to unto }'ou to reveal his will, so you must carry 
it to your people. Now we are thev whom he created when he made 
the world and our duty is to watch over and care for mankind. 
Now there are four of us but the fourth is not here present. When 
we called vou bv name and vou heard, he returned to tell the news. 

^ The earliest of the wild strawl)erries are thouglit to he of great medicinal 
value and are eagerly eaten as soon as ripe. So sacred a plant is the 
strawberry that it is thought to grow along the " heaven road." \ person 
recovering from a severe illness says, " I almost ate strawl)erries." 

2 The Osto'wa'go'wa, the chief religious dance. See Morgan, p. 279. 


'J1iis will bring joy into the hcavcn-world of our Creator. So it 
is that the fourth is not with us hut you shall see him at another 
time and when that time is at hand you shall know. Xow further- 
more we must remind you of the evil things that you have done 
and you nuist repent of all things that you believe to have been 
evil. You think that you ha\e done wrong beeause of O'gi'we. 
Ye'onda'tha and Gone'owo"^ and because you partook of strong 
drink. N'erily you must do as you think for whatsoever you think 
is evil is evil." " 


" 'And now behold! Look through the valley between two hills. 
Look between the sunrise and the noon ! " 

■' So 1 looked, and in the valley there was a deeper hollow from 
which smoke was arising and steam as if a hot place were beneath. 

" Then spoke the messengers saying, " What do you see? ' 

" I answered, ' I see a place in the valley from which smoke is 
arising and it is also steaming as a hot place were beneath.' 

" Then said the beings, ' Truly you have spoken. It is the truth. 
In that place a man is buried. He lies between the two hills in the 
hollow in the valley and a great message is buried with him. Once 
we commanded that man to proclaijn that message to the world but 
he reftised to obey. So now he will never rise f ro n that spot for 
he refused to obey. So now to you, therefore, we say, proclaim 
the message that we give you and tell it truly before all people.' 

Now the first thing has been finished and it remains for us to 
uncover all wickedness before you.' So they said." 

1 See notes, p. 2i. 




" Now the l)cings spoke saxing, ' We must now relate our 
message. We will uncover the evil upon the earth and show how 
men spoil the laws the ( Ireal Ruler has made and therel)\- made 
him angry." 

" ' Idle Creator made man a living creature.' 

" ■ P^our words tell a great story of wrong and the Creator is 
sad hecause of the trouhle they hring, so go and tell your people." 

" ■ The first word is ( )ne'ga'.' It seems that you never have 
known that this word stands for a great and monstrous evil and 
has reared a high mound of hones. {ia''nigoentdo"'tha. you lose 
your minds and one'ga' causes it all. Alas, many are fond of it and 
are too fond of it. So now all must now say, " 1 will use it never- 
more. As long as I live, as long as the numher of luy days is I will 
never use it again. I now stop.'" So must all say when they hear 
this message." Now the l)eings, the servants of the (ircat Ruler, 
the messengers of him who created us, said this. Eurthermore 
they said that the Creator made one'ga' and gave it to our younger 
brethren, the white man, as a medicine but they use it for evil for 
thev drink it for other pur])()ses than medicine and drink instead 
of work and idlers drink one'ga'. Xo, the Creator did not make 
it for you."" 

So they said and he said, b^.nia'iehuk !- 


" Now spoke the beings and said, ' We now speak of the second 
word. This makes the Creator angry. The word is ( iot'go"".'^ 

' Whiskey or Rum. 

2 Enia'iehiik meaning, It zcas that Tcav. 

'.A certain numlier of the Seneca Troqunis still cling to the lielief in 
witchcraft although thev are loath to admit it to any one in wlmm they have 
not implicit confidence. While they assert that witchcraft was introduced 
among them l)y some Algonquin trihe which they had adopted, their early 
legends and traditions contain many allusions to witches and witchcraft. 
There are at least two distinct methods employed hy witches to accomplish 
their ends. 'J"he first, it is claimed, is the older way and is the employment 


Witches are people without their right minds. They make disease 
and spread sickness to make the Hving die. They cut short the 
numbered days, for the Creator has given each person a certain 
number of days in which to Hve in this world. 

" ' Now this must you do: When you have told this message and 
the witches hear it they will confess before all the people and will 
say, " I am doing this evil thing but now I cease it forever, as long 
as I live." Some witches are more evil and can not speak in public 
so these must come privately and confess to you, Handsome Lake, 
or a preacher of this Gai'wiio'. Now some are most evil and they 
must go far out uj^on an abandoned trail and there they must 

of what is described by informants as analogous to " malific mental sugges- 
tion," either verbal or telepathic. Such witches were able to assume the 
form of ancient monsters, the nia"gwahe or mammoth bear being the favorite 
form. They had power of transforming people into beasts, of imprisoning 
them within trees without destroying the human nature or sensibilities of 
their victims. Many stories are related of how chivalrous young men fresli 
from the dream fast were alile to release the unhappy prisoners from the 
spells that bound them. 

The second and modern class of witches work their evil spells by intro- 
ducing into the bodies of their victims by supernatural means a small needle- 
like splinter pointed on either end and having a central eye to which was 
tied the hair of the witch, a splinter of bone from the fibula of a deer, a 
worm or some like object. Instances where such things have been drawn 
from bewitched persons are commonly 'reported. 

A witch can work fearlessly and successfully as long as she remains un- 
known to the victim and under some circumstances even when known. A 
" witched " person is often able to see as in a vision the witch wherever she 
goes and is likewise able to tell when she is about to approach the house. 
Witches fear the threat of an angry person to kill them. Such a threat if 
an earnest one is an effectual charm against further annoyance. To burn the 
object that a witch has introduced into one's body will torture the witch and 
kill her. Such objects are not often burned. If revenge is desired the 
victim, if sufficiently angry, can throw the oliject through space and injure 
the witch wherever he wishes. A person who successfully resists and de- 
stroys another witch's power may become a witch if so desired. 

To torture a witch, force a confession and exact a promise of repentance, 
take a living bird, black in color (a hen is now usually employed) and carry 
it into the woods at midnight. Here build a fire and then split open the 
bird's body, extract its beating heart and hang it by its chords over a small 
fire to roast slowly. The witch will then exert every possible means to reach 
the spot and beg that the heart be taken from the fire before it is consumed. 
At such a time any promise may be exacted, for the witch is powerless. 
If the heart is consumed the witch will die of a " burnt heart." Witch poison 
may be extracted by putting fine sifted ashes on the afflicted part and staying 


confess before the Creator alone. This course may be taken by 
witches of whom no one knows. 

" ■ Now when they go they must say : 

" Our Creator, O listen to me ! 
I am a miserable creature. 
I think that way 
So now I cease. 
Now this is appointed 
For all of my days. 
As long as I live here 
In this earth-world. 
I have spoken." 

" ' In this manner all must say and say truly, then the prayer will 
be sufficient.' "' 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" Now the beings spoke again saying. ' This is the third word. 
It is a sad one and the Creator is very sad because of this third 
word. It seems that you have never known that a great pile of 
human bodies lies dead because of this word, Ono'ityi'yende, the 
niga'hos'saa', the secret poisons in little bundles named Gawen- 

in bed until the poison comes out. The charm will then be found in the 
ashes. The spirits of great witches are able to return and possess another 
witch. A witcli who has sucli a " friend " is especially favored, for m time 
of need the spirit-witch will direct her to money, goods or food. Witches 
do not always injure people who liave offended them but more often tlicir 
children or other near relatives. This is done that the person they desire 
to punish may see an innocent person suffer for their offense and so be 
tortured the more. 

"Witch doctors" are of two classes: witclics who are willing to pit tiicir 
powers against other witches ; and medicine men who have made a special 
study of the charms that will offset witch spells. This class may also be 
divided into two divisions, those who make a regular profession of dis- 
pelling witch influences, of discovering the cause of mysterious ailments, of 
extracting the object that causes the trouble and of identifying witches, and 
those who by reason of some special service they have rendered some spirit 
of nature have been rewarded with magical powers, great wisdom and im- 
munity from malific influences. This class renders its services gratuitously. 
Small false faces worn on the person and frequent invocations of the 
Thunder spirit with liberal offerings of sacred tobacco are potent charms 
against witches. The False Face company has an annual ceremony in wdiich 
witch spirits are expelled from the community. The I"dos company (q. v.) 
is said to be the survival of the older witch society introduced among the 
Seneca by the Nanticoke. Its members are reputed to possess magic powers. 


nodus'liii (compelling charms^). Now the Creator who made us 
CO rmands that they who do this evil, when they hear this message, 
must sto]) it immediately and do it nevermore while they live u])on 
this earth-world. It matters not how much destruction they have 
wrought — let them repent and not fail for fear the Creator will 
not accei)t them as his own.' "' 

So they said and he said. Rniaiehuk. 


" ' Now another word. It is sad. It is the fourth word. It is 
the wa_\' ^'()ndwi'nias swa'yas.- 

" ■ Now the Creator ordained thai women should bear children. 

" ' Now a certain young married woman had children and 
sulTered nuich. Now she is with child again and her mother wishing 
to prevent further sutTerings designs to administer a medicine to 
cut ofif the child and to pre\ent forever other children from com- 
ing.'' So the mother makes the medicine and gives it. Now when 
she does this she forever cuts away her daughter's string of children. 
Now it is because of such things that the Creator is sad. He created 
life to live and he wishes such evils to cease. He wishes those who 
ein])l(jy such medicines to cease such practices forevermore. Now 
they must sto]) when thev hear this message. Co and tell vour 
people." '" 

So thev said and he said. F.niaiehuk. 

1 Charms. Should a person die holding a secret, one may discover it Iiy 
sleeping upon the ground with a handful of the grave dirt beneath his head. 
Then. // all conditions are perfect, the dead person will appear in tlirce suc- 
cessive visions and reveal its mystery. 

A young man, wishing to l)ecome a swift runner, mav add to liis powers 
by concealing in his belt a l)one from the grave of some celebrated runner 
of the past. It is said that most famous runners of the League carried these 

A warriiir who wishes to guard against sudden attack from behind may 
make an unfailing charm l)y cutting three slits in tiie liack of liis neck and 
rubbing into the wounds tlie oil extracted from tlie scalps of enemies. A 
peculiar soft white flesh will fill up the cuts and wlien completely healed 
will protrude. Should an enemy then approach tliese protruding scars will 
quiver and warn the warrior of danger. 

The most effective charm for drawing riciies is tlie tooth of a nia'gwah?. 

- Meaning " she cuts it off liy abortion." 

■'Tlie Iroquois knew of such an lierl). T find it mentioned li\ I)r Peter 
Wilson, the Cayuga, and it was iiointed out to me at Onondaga in 191 1. 
The Seneca and Onondaga belief is that every woman has a certain number 
of children predestined to them and that they are fastened on a stringlike 
runner like tubers, or lijje eggs within a bir(J. 



" ' Now another message. 

" ' Go tell your people that the Clreat Ruler is sad because of 
what people do. 

" ' The Creator has made it so that the married should live 
together and that children should grow from them. 

" "Now it often happens that it is only a little while when people 
are married that the husband speaks evil of his wife because he 
does not wish to care for her children. Now a man who does that 
stirs up trouble with his wife and soon deserts her and his children. 
Then he searches for another woman and when he has found her 
he marries her. Then when he finds her with child he goes away 
from her and leaves her alone. Again he looks for another woman 
and when he has lived with her for a time and sees her growing 
large, he deserts her, the third woman. 

" ' Now this is true. We, the messengers, saw hi n leave the two 
women and the Creator himself saw him desert the third and pun- 
ished him. Now a sure torment in the after life is for him who 
leaves two women with child but the Creator alone knows what the 
punishment is for the man who leaves the third." '" 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" ' Now another message. 

" ' The Creator has ordered that man and wife should rear their 
children well, love them and keep them in health. This is the 
Creator's rule. We, the messengers, have seen both men and 
women desert each other when children come. The woman dis- 
covers that the man, her husband, loves his child and she is very 
jealous and spreads evil reports of him. She does this for an ex- 
cuse before the world to leave him. Thus the messengers say that 
the Creator desires men and women to cease such mischief." "' 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" ' Now another message. 

" ' Tell your people that the Creator has ordered regular mar- 
riage customs. When the young people are old enough to marry, 
tell them so. When they marry they will live pleasantly. Now it 
may happen that the girl's mother discovers that she is very hai)py 


with her husband. Then she endeavors to make her daughter angry 
with her husband when he returns from a journey. But when the 
husband returns the young wife forgets the evil advice and greets 
him lovingly. Now the older woman, the mother, seeing this, 
speaks again hoping to stir up an ill feeling. Says the old woman, 
" My daughter, your spirits are dull, you are not bright. When I 
was young I was not so agreeable. I was harsh with my hu.sband." 
Now the Creator is sad because of the tendency of old women to 
breed mischief. Such work must stop. Tell your people it must 
stop.' " 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" ' Now another message to tell your people. 

" ' The married often live well together for a while. Then a man 
becomes ugly in temper and abuses his wife. It seems to afford 
him pleasure. Now because of such things the Creator is very sad. 
So he bids us to tell you that such evils must stop. Neither man 
nor woman must strike each other.' So they said. 

" Now furtiiermore they said, ' We will tell you what people must 
do. It is the way he calls best. Love one another and do not 
strive for another's undoing, i'^ven as you desire good treatment, 
so render it. Treat your wife well and she will treat you well.' " 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" ' Now another message to tell your people. 

" ' This concerns short marriages. 

" ' Now some live together peaceably and keep the family as 
should be. Then after a time the man resolves to go off on a 
hunting excursion in the woods for a certain number of days. So 
he goes, having agreed with his wife about it. All is well and he 
returns with a load of game. He feels well and thinks he is doing 
well in thus providing for his family. On his way homeward he 
meets some one who tells him that in his absence his wife has been 
living with another man. When he hears this report he feels sad 
and angry. He refuses to go to his home and turns from his path 
and goes to his relatives. Now whoever makes mischief of this 
kind does a great wrong before the Creator. So he bids his people 
to forever stop such evil practices.' " 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 



. " ' Now another message. 

" ' Now this concerns both husband and wife. Now it may hap- 
pen that a man and wife Hve together happily. At length the man 
thinks that he will go to another settlement to visit relatives there. 
His wife agrees and he goes. Now when he gets to the village he in- 
duces some agreeable woman to live with him saying he is single. 
Then after some time the man goes back to his own family. His 
wife treats him cordially as if no trouble had occurred. Now we, 

^ the messengers, say that the woman is good in the eyes of her 
Creator and has a place reserved for her in the heaven-world. Now 
the woman knew all that had been done in the other settlement but 
she thought it best to be peaceful and remain silent. And the 

I Creator says that she is right and has her path toward the heaven- 

1 world, but he, the man, is on his way to the house of the Wicked 

! One.' " 

[ So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 



Now another message. 

This concerns a certain thing that human creatures follow. It 

is concerning gakno'we'haat. Some men desire constant new ex- 

'perience, that is some men are always following 3'e'o"'. Now it is 

a great evil for men to have such desires. This is a thing that the 

so sinful must confess. A man who desires to know gagwego" 

yc'o"'sho' will never be satisfied, for ye'o"' will arise whom he can 

not know and he will fall flat. Now we, the messengers, say that 

all this is sinful and men must not follow such desires.' "' 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 

sij rioN 14 

Now another message. 

This is what your people do. 
" " An old woman punished her children ^ unjustly. The 
Creator is sad because of such things and bids us tell you that such 
practices must cease.' So they said. 

1 Handsome Lake was ever the lover and champion of children. There are 
many instances in the Gaiwiio relating to the care and rearing of children. 
The mode of punishment here referred to was one of long usage. Some- 
times the mother would fill her mouth with water and blow it into the face 
-ii the little offender, repeating until obedience was enforced. Punishment 
3y violence as by whipping or striking was discountenanced. The mother 


" ' Now this is the way ordained by the Creator : Talk slowly 
and kindly to children and never punish then; unjustly. When a 
child will not obey let the mother say, ■" Come to the water and I 
will immerse you." If after this warning the child is still obstinate 
she must take it to the water's edge and say, " Do you now obey? " 
and she must say so again and if at the third time there is no obedi- 
ence then the child must be thrust in the water. But if the child cries 
for mercy it must have it and the woman must not throw it into 
the water. If she does she does evil.' " 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" ' Now another message of things not right. 

" ' Parents disregard the warnings of their children, ^^^^en a 
child says, " Mother, 1 want you to stop wrongdoing," the child 
speaks straight words and the Creator says that the child speaks 
right and the mother must obey. I'^n-thermore the Creator j)ro- 
claims that such words from a child arc wonderful and that the 
mother who disregards the n takes the wicked part. The mother 
mav replv. " Daughter, stop your noise. 1 know better than you. 
I am the older and you are but a child. Think not that you can in- 
fluence me l)y your speaking." Now when you tell this message to 
your people say that it is wrong to speak to children in such 
words.' " 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" ' Now another message. 

Tell your people that the Creator is sad because of what they 
are doing. 

" ' Some people live together well as man and wife and family, 
but the man of the family uses strong drink. Then when he comes 
home he lifts up his child to fondle it and he is drunk. Now we, 
the messengers of the Creator, say that this is not right for if a 
man filled with strong drink touches his child he burns its blood. 
Tell your people to heed this warning.' " 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 

who was intrusted with the care of children was accustomed to tell her chil- 
dren what was wrong and allow them by experience to know that her word 
was to be relied upon. A boy remained under the discipline of his mother 
until the age of sixteen when lie was turned over to the training of his 
father. If the boy was unruly and without ambition the mother received the 
blame and was sometimes punished. 



" ' Now another message. 

" ' Some people live together righteously as man and wife ac- 
cording as the Creator ordained, but they have no child. When this 
is so let this be the way: If the wife's sister has children, of these 
let the wife without issue take from one to three and rear theai and 
thereby fulfil her duty to the Creator. Moreover when a woman 
takes children she must rear them well as if born of herself. We, 
the messengers, say that you must tell this to your people.' " 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" ' Now another message. 

" ' Tell your people that ofttimes when a woman hears that a 
child is born and goes to see it, she returns and says in many 
houses where she .stops that its mother's husband is not its father. 
Now we say that it is exceedingly wrong to speak such evil of chil- 
dren. The Creator formed the children as they are ; therefore, let 
the people stop their evil sayings.' " 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" ' Now another message. 

" ' Now the Creator of mankind ordained that people should live 
to an old age. He appointed that when a woman becomes old she 
should be without strength and unable to work.^ Now the Creator 
says that it is a great wrong to be unkind to our grandmothers. 
The Creator forbids unkindness to the old. We, the messengers, 
say it. The Creator appointed this way : he designed that an old 
woman should be as a child again and when she becomes so the 
Creator wishes the grandchildren to help her, for only because she 
is, they are. Whosoever does right to the aged does right in the 
sight of the Creator.' " 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 

(So many words, Odi'waga''de, end of first day's preaching) 

Recitation of the second day 


" ' Now another message. 
" ' A wav that was followed. 

1 The wisdom of the aged, especially upon ceremonial matters, was never 


" ' Sometimes a mother is ready to feed her family. When she 
is ready to bid them sit down, she glances out and sees some one 
coming and straightway hides the food. A woman visitor comes 
in. Now after some conversation the visitor says she is unwell 
and goes out. Then the family commences to eat. And the Creator 
says that who follow such tricks must repent as soon as they hear 
this message, for such practices are most wicked.' " 

" Now the messengers said this." 

" ' Now the Creator made food for all creatures and it must be 
free for all. He ordained that people should live in communities. 
Now when visitors enter a lodge the woman must always say, 
" Sede'koni"','' come cat. Now it is not right to refuse what is 
offered. The visitor must take two or three bites at least and say, 
" Niawe"'." Tell this to all your people.' " 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 

SECTION 21 - , "i ■•■ ■< ■- ' 

" ' Now another message. 

" ' Now this is right. 

" ' When a woman hears children playing near her lodge she 
must call them in and ask them to eat. The Creator says that this 
is right for some children are of poor parents and have little to eat. 
The Creator loves poor children and whosoever feeds the poor and 
unfortunate does right before him.' " 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 

SECTION 22 . ■ ii ^ 1 " ■ 'T 

" ' Now another message. 

" ' When a woman sees an unfortunate girl who has neither 
parents nor settled home and calls her in and helps her repair her 
clothing, cleanse herself and comb her hair, she does right and has 
favor in the sight of her Creator. He loves the poor and the woman 
does right before him. So we, the messengers, say that you must 
tell your people to continue to do this good thing.' " 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" ' Now another message. 

" ' The Creator is sad because of the sins of the beings that he 

" ' He ordained that mankind should live as social beings in com- 


" ' Now it may happen that a woman sets out to destroy good 
feehngs between neighbors by teUing go'diodia'se (stories that aug- 
ment by repetition). Now this woman goes to a house and says, 
■' I love you and because I do I will tell you a secret. The woman 
in the next house speaks evil of you."' Now heretofore the two 
women had been friends but upon hearing this story the woman 
becomes an enemy of her former friend. Then the evil story-teller 
goes to the woman whom she lied about and tells her the hard words 
that the other woman has spoken. Then is the liar happy having 
started a feud, and she hastens from house to house to tell of it. 
Now great troubles arise and soon a tight, and one woman causes 
it all. Therefore the Creator is very sad. Tell your people that 
such things must stop the moment this message is told. 

" ' Now the Creator has ordained another way. He has ordained 
that human creatures should be kind one to the other and help each 
other. When a woman visits another house she must help at the 
work in progress and talk pleasantly. If she relates jokes they 
must always be upon herself. If she speaks harshly of others the 
woman of the house must say, " I remember the desires of our 
Creator. I can not hear what you say. I can not take that evil 
story." So the trouble is ended there. Now the Creator says that 
the woman is true who refuses to hear evil reports. She cuts off 
the evil at its beginning and it does not go from her. So she has 
won favor before the Creator." "' 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" * Now another message. 

" ' The Creator who made you is sad. 

" ' The Creator made every person with a different face. 

" ' Now a man talks saying that he is far more handsome than 
other men. He boasts that he is exceedingly handsome and grand. 
But the Creator says all this is very wrong. The vain must repent 
and never boast again.' So they said. 

" ' Now animals seem alike to you. A wild animal that you have 
once seen you can not easily say you have seen again. But people 
are different before you. Now when a man is handsome let him 
thank his Creator for his comliness.' So they said. 

Now furthermore a man says " I am the strongest man of all. 
There is no one who can throw me to the ground."" A man who 
talks thus is a boaster before the people. Now the Creator says 


that such boasting is evil. The Creator endowed the man with 
strength and therefore he should not boast but thank the giver who 
is the Creator. So tell your people these things.' So they said. 

" ' Now furthermore a man says, " I am the swiftest runner of 
the world. No one can outrun me." Now he regards himself as a 
mighty man and boasts before his people. Now the Creator says 
that such boasting is evil. The Creator endowed the man with his 
speed and he should offer thanks and not boast. So we, the mes- 
sengers, say your people must cease their boasting.' " ^ 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" ' Now another message. 

" ' Three things that our younger brethren (the white people) 
do are right to follow. 

" ' Now, the first. The white man works on a tract of cultivated 
ground and harvests food for his family. So if he should die they 
still have the ground for help. If any of your people have cultivated 
ground let them not be proud on that account. If one is proud 
there is sin within him but if there be no pride there is no sin. 

" ' Now, the second thing. It is the way a white man builds a 
house. He builds one warm and fine appearing so if he dies the 
family has the house for help. Whoso among you does this does 
right, always providing there is no pride. If there is pride it is 
evil but if there is none, it is well. 

" ' Now the third. The white man keeps horses and cattle. Now 
there is no evil in this for they are a help to his family. So if he 
dies his family has the stock for help. Now all this is right if there 
is no pride. No evil will follow this practice if the animals are well 
fed, treated kindly and not overworked. Tell this to your people.' " 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" ' Now another message to tell your relatives. 

This concerns education. It is concerning studying in English 

Now let the Council appoint twelve people to study, two 
from each nation of the six. So many white people are about you 
that you must study to know their ways.' '' 
So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 

1 A more complete catalog of the besetting sins of the Iroquois than set 
forth in the foregoing sections can not be found nor are they elsewhere more 
graphically described. 



" ' Now another message to tell your people. 

" ' Now some men have much work and invite all their friends to 
come and aid them and they do so. Now this is a good plan and the 
Creator designed it. He ordained that men should help one an- 
other ^ (adanida'osha' ).' " 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" ' Now another message of things not right. 

" ' People do wrong in the world and the Creator looks at all 

" ' A woman sees some green vegetables and they are not hers. 
She takes them wrongly. Now she is yeno"'skwaswa'do"', a thiev- 
ing woman. Tell your people that petty thieving must cease.' So 
they said. 

" ' Now the Creator gave Diohe''ko" " for a living. When a 
woman sees a new crop and wishes to eat of it in her own house, 
she must ask the owner for a portion and offer payment. Then 
may the owner use her judgment and accept recompense or give the 
request freely." "•'' 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


Now another message for you to tell your people. 

" ' It is not right for you to have so many dances^ and dance 

" 'A man calls a dance in honor of some totem animal from which 
he desires favor or power. This is very wrong, for you do not 
know what injury it may work upon other people. 

^ The bee is a very popular institution among the Iroquois. See Museum 
Bulletin 144, p. 31. 

-Meaning, "our life givers," the corn, l)cans and squashes. See Iroquois 
Uses of Maize, p. 36. 

^ One of the old methods of gardening was to clear a small patch in the 
woods hy girdling the trees and planting in the mellow forest mold. Tiie 
name and totem of the owner of the garden was painted on a post, signify- 
ing that the ground was private property. The clan totem gave permission to 
any hard-pressed clansman to take what he wished in emergency but only 
in such a case. These isolated gardens in the forests were objects of 
temptation sometimes, as the prophet intimates. 

^ The Seneca had thirty-three dances, ten of which were acquired from 
other tribes. See p. 81. 


" ' Tell your people that these things must cease. Tell them to 
repent and cease.' " 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 

" ' Now this shall be the way : They who belong to these totem 
animal societies^ must throw tobacco and disband.' So they said." 
" Now in those days when the head men heard this message they 
said at once, in anger, ' We disband,' and they said this without 
holding a ceremony as the messenger had directed. "- 



" ' Now another message to tell your people. 

" ' Four words the Creator has given for bringing happiness. They 

1 Animal Societies and Totems. The Seneca firmly believe that by using 
the proper formula the favor of various animals can be purchased. The 
animal petitioned it is believed will make the person successful in any pur- 
suit in which itself is proficient. The charm-animal was sometimes revealed 
in a dream, sometimes by a diviner of mysteries and was often sought di- 
rectly. A warrior wishing to become a successful fisherman, for instance, 
might do any one of three things. He might seek for a dream that would 
show him what animal would make him an expert fisher, he might consult 
a " clairvoyant " or he might go directly to a stream of water and selecting 
some animal petition its favor. 

The patron of the fisheries was the otter and there is a special society of 
those who have the otter for a " friend." The Society of Otters preserves 
the rites of invocation and the method of propitiation and also the method 
of healing afflicted members. 

Other animals which are thought to be " great medicine " are the eagle, 
the bear, the buffalo and the mythical nia'gwahe or mammoth bear that 
was alternately a man and a beast. To be ungrateful to these givers of luck 
is a sin that arouses the ire of the animal who will punish the offender by 
inflicting him with some strange sickness. The offense may be one of neg- 
lect or altogether unintentional and unknown. It is then the duty of the 
society to appease the offended animal by performing the rites on a grand 
scale that the individual has failed to do in the ordinary way. The ordinary 
individual ceremony consisted simply of going to the bank of some clear 
stream, in the case of the Otters for instance, and after smoking sacred 
tobacco, casting the pulverized tobacco into the water at intervals during a 
thanksgiving and praise chant. Then will the otters know that their human 
brothers are not ungrateful for the fortune they are receiving. 

There were four societies, having as their genii the spirits of the bear, the 
birds (eagle), the buffalo and the otter, respectively, and taking their names 
from their guardian animal (Secret Medicine Societies of the Seneca, 
P- 113). 

- This was done at the suggestion of Cornplantcr who is accused of cn~ 
dcavoring to upset the plans and prophecies of Handsome Lake in many 
sly ways. 


are amusements devised in the heaven world, the Osto'wago'vva,^ 
Gone'owo"', Ado"'we° and Ganawe"'go\va.' " 
So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 

SECTION 31 ■ "i : ?~^; 

" ' Now another message to tell your people. 

" ' The Creator has sanctioned four dances for producing a joy- 
ful spirit and he has placed them in the keeping of Honon'diont- 
who have authority over them. The Creator has ordered that on 
certain times and occasions there should be thanksgiving ceremonies. 
At such times all must thank the Creator that they live. After that, 
let the chiefs thank him for the ground and the things on the 
ground and then upward to the sky and the heaven-world 
where he is. Let the children and old folk come and give 
thanks. Let the old women who can scarcely walk come. 
They may lean against the middle benches and after listen- 
ing to three or four songs must say, " I thank the Great Ruler that 
I have seen this day." Then will the Creator call them right be- 
fore him. 

" ' It seems that you have never known that when Osto'wago'wa 
was being celebrated that one of the four beings was in the midst 
of it, but it is so. Now when the time for dancing comes you must 
wash your faces and comb your hair, paint your face with red spots 
on either cheek, and with a thankful heart go to the ceremony. This 
preparation will be sufficient, therefore, do not let your style of 
dress hold you back. 

" ' You have not previously been aware that w'hen a Godi'ont is 
appointed that you have not appointed her. No, for the Great 
Ruler has chosen her. A road leads from the feet of every godi'ont 
and hodi'ont toward heaven. Truly this is so only of they who do 
right before the Creator.' " 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" ' Now another message for your people. 

" ' He who created us appointed that there should be chiefs, 
(hodi'ion'), and that they should do good for the people.'" 
So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 

1 The Great Feather dance, the Harvest dance, tlie Sacred Song and the 
Peach Stone game. 

^ Honoii'diont, overseers or keepers of ceremonies, more often women 
than men. The word means Tliey are mountains. (Hodi'ont is mas. sing.; 
Godi'ont, fern. sing.). 



" ' So now another. 

" ' Tell your relations this. The Creator has sanctioned a feast 
to a medicine animal on a great day.' '' 
So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" ' Now another message to tell your people. 

" ' Now the messengers said that this thing was beyond the con- 
trol of Indians. 

" 'At some future day the wild animals will become extinct. Now 
when that day comes the people will raise cattle and swine for feast 
food at the thanksgivings.' " ^ 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" ' Now another message to tell your people. 

" ' You have been ignorant of this thing. 

" ' When the Honondi'ont go about to notify the community of a 
meeting for the celebration of Osto'wago'wa, or for hearing the 
Great Ruler's message, the evil spirit at the same time appoints and 
sends another man, an invisible one, in his tracks saying, " Do not 
go. It is of no use, no benefit comes to you ; rather do your own 
work at home and stay away." Now it is the messenger of the evil 
spirit that argues thus. Now know you that the evil spirit will 
hinder you in all good things but you can outwit him by doing the 
things that he does not wish you to do. (jO then to the meetings. 
Then will the evil messenger follow you to the Long House and 
when from the outside you have heard the songs he will say that 
such is sufficient and that you may now return. Do not heed him 
but enter and take your seat. Then will he argue again saying 
that it is sufficient to listen and not take a part because you would 
not appear well in shabby clothing. Heed him not. Now this 
spirit speaks to your minds and his face is between you all.' " 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


Now another message to tell your people. 
This will happen. 
" ' We have told you to watch. 

^ Pork is now the principal ceremonial food. 


" ' The HononMiont will go out in fours for game for the feasts. 

" ' You may think that they are fulfilling their duty to Gai'wiio'. 

" ' The animals that fall must be thirty. 

" ' But this will happen when Gai'wiio' is new. The Honon'diont 
will kill twenty-nine and the twenty-ninth will be a cub bear. So 
there will not be thirty. 

" ' So this will be done when Gai'wiio' is new. It will be done at 
Adekwe'o"ge, the Green Corn thanksgiving ceremony.' " 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" ' Now another message to tell your people. 

" ' Now this is a thing to happen. 

" ' Hereafter we shall have a new species of deer.^ The Creator 
will create somewhere a pair, male and female. The male deer will 
be spotted with white and the female striped with white over her 
back. This will be done and we say it. 

" ' Now moreover the messengers command that these animals 
shall never be killed.' " 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" ' Now another message for your people. 

" ' If all the world would repent the earth would become as new 
again. Because of sin the under-world- is crumbling with decay. 
The world is full of sin. Truly, this is so.' " 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 

1 These deer are the sacred creations of the Great Ruler and as such no 
"pale invader" is permitted to see them, though a few of the faithful have 
at certain seasons seen them in the darkness fleeing from discovery. Corn- 
planter says these deer were killed by a jealous rival of the prophet while 
he yet lived, so defying the new command. 

-The under-world was tlionght to be a dark region beneath the surface 
of the earth where were confmcd the creations of the evil-minded spirit. It 
was a vast cave full of winding chambers, dark turbid rivers, bottomless 
sloughs, hot springs and fetid odors, rapacious beasts, venomous serpents, 
poisonous insects and noxious weeds. The door of the under-world was 
guarded by the under-earth elves who had great difficulty in preventing the 
white Iniffaloes from escaping. Frequently they did and then began a great 
pursuit to kill or bring back the white bufifaloes. At such a time the elves 
would tell the sun of the calamity and he would paint his face red as a sign 
to all the elves the world over that the chase was on. See Legend, Origin of 
Death Dance. 



" ' Now another message to tell your people. 

" ' We, the messengers of the Creator, are of the opinion that 
the world will continue for three generations longer (or three hun- 
dred years). ^ Then will Gai'wiio' be fulfilled.' " 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" ' Now another message to tell your people. 

" 'The religious leaders and the chiefs must enforce obedience to 
the teachings of (jai'wiio'.' " 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" ' Now another message to tell your people. 

" ' This thing will happen when it is new. 

" ' Truly men will repent and reform but it will happen that 
three certain ones will neither confess nor reform. Nothing will 
induce them to confess. 

" ' There are grades of sin:- the sins of Hasan'owan'e', the sins 
of Honon'diont and the sins of the ordinary people. 

" ' Now when you are preaching repentance, Gaiant'waka will 
say that these men when they pass from this world are most vile. 
He will say, " Let us cast them into the water for they are not 
worthy to be dressed for the grave. The Creator will not receive 
them." Now no one will object to what Gaiant'waka says.' " 

Now this thing did happen as predicted and when the messen- 
ger arose the first thing that he did was to spread the news and give 
the command that it must not be done. 

" Now they said, ' The Creator will not give up hope of them 
until they pass from the earth. It is only then that they can lose 
their souls if they have not repented. So the Creator always hopes 
for repentance.' " ^ 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


Now another message to tell your people. 

^ Handsome Lake taught that the world would end in the year 2100. 
2 The higher the position the greater the sin, is the prophet's rule. 
^ See p. 61, Idea of soul. 


" ' Chiefs and high officers have spoken derisively of each other 
and quarreled.^ What they have done must not be done again.' " 
So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" 'Now another message to tell your people. 

" ' Good food is turned into evil drink. Now some have said that 
there is no harm in partaking of fermented liquids. 

Then let this plan be followed : let men gather in two parties, 
one having a feast of food, apples and corn, and the other have 
cider and whiskey. Let the parties be equally divided and matched 
and let them commence their feasting at the same time. When the 
feast is finished you will see those who drank the fermented juices 
murder one of their own party but not so with those who ate food 
only.' " 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" ' Now another message for your people. 

" ' You have had the constant fear that the white race would 
exterminate you.- The Creator will care for his Ongwe'o"we (real 
people).' " 

So they said and he said, luiiaiehuk. 


" ■ Now another message for your people. 

" ' Some of your relatives and descendants will say, " We lack 
an understanding of this religion." and this will be the crv of the 

1 Jealousy was the principal cause of the dissension that led to the decay 
of the League of the Iroquois. 

2 The Iroquois saw that the white race had encircled them and were draw- 
ing the lines ever tighter. They saw that they were in a position of great 
disadvantage, living as they did in the midst of a people against whom they 
had fought not only in their own wars hut also as allies of the British. 
They saw how all other native trihes had been swept away with the advance 
of the invading race and thus no wonder they feared. Yet totlay (1912) 
they still exist unabsorbed and as a distinct people in the midst of the 
civilization of the Empire State under their own tribal laws and recognized 
nominally as nations. The story of how they have preserved themselves 
through three centuries of contact with an invading race that had little love 
for them and whose policy like their own in ancient times, is to absorb or 
exterminate, to accomplish a thing that no other aboriginal race has done, 
is well worth a place in history as one of its marvels. " Truly the Creator 
has cared for his red children!" 


people. But even we, the servants of the Creator, do not under- 
stand all things. Now some when they are turned to the right 
way will sav, "" I will continue so for all of my clays," hut this will 
not be so for they surely will fall short in some things. This is 
why even we can not understand all things.' " 
So they said. Eniaiehuk. 


" At the time of this prophecy I was in the Cold Spring village. 
It occurred at this time. The prophecy was then new. 

" At that time a woman and her daughter administered a witch- 
powder' to a man and he lost his mind. He wandered off alone 
and died and thus a great crime was committed. 

" Now at that time it was said among the head men, " We will 
punish the women.' So it was the plan that each chief give the 
women one lash. 

'■ Now 1, Ganiodai'io' heard the resolution of the chiefs and was 
of the opinion that the women would easily survive such punish- 
ment, so, also, the chiefs believed it. 

" Now all this happened when the head men sat in council, the 
four messengers l)eing present. 

" Now this thing must never happen again. Such councils never 
accomplish good. It is natural that foolish women should have 
done what these did. 

" Now at the time of the lashing it was in my mind that they 
would surely live. 

" So this must never ha])pen again because the Creator has not 
[)rivileged men to jjunish each other." Eniaiehuk. [See plate 12.] 


" So now another story. 
It happened that at a certain time a certain person did not 
honor Gai'wiio'. At a gathering where Gai'wiio' was being told 
this was done. It was at Cold Spring village. 

"A man was standing in the doorway showing disrespect to the 
proceedings within. The prophet was speaking and as he said in 
closing ' It is finished,' the man in the doorway daini'Madi. Now 
that was the last. The man did not go ho:re to his dwelling and 

1 Witch-powders were used for various purposes but generally as poisons 
or love charms. Their use is condemned in section 3 and the punishment 
of those who use them in section 104. 


tlie next day it was rumored that he was missing. A search was 
made and on the other side of the Allegany in a swamp two days 
later the man was found. He was sitting above it. He had broken 
branches and arranged them in the form of a nest upon which he 
sat devouring snakes. He was not in his right mind. They took 
him from his nest (ho'no"'gwae") and soon he died." Eniaichuk. 


" Now another story. 

1 " Now it was that when the people reviled me, the proclaimer 
of the prophecy, the impression came to me that it would be well 
to depart and go to Tonawanda. In that place I had relatives and 
friends and thought that my bones might find a resting place there. 
Thus I thought through the day. 

" Then the messengers came to me and said ' We understand 
your thoughts. We will visit you more frequently and converse 
with you. Wherever you go take care not to be alone. Be cautious 
and move secretly.' 

" Then the messengers told me that my life journey would be in 
three stages and when I entered the third I would enter into the 
eternity of the New World,^ the land of our Creator. So they 
said." Eniaiehuk. 

2 " The day was bright when I went into the planted field and 
alone I wandered in the planted field and it was the time of the 
second hoeing. Suddenly a damsel" appeared and threw her arms 
about my neck and as she clasped me she spoke saying, ' When you 
leave this earth for the new world above, it is our wish to follow 
you.' I looked for the damsel but saw only the long leaves of corn 
twining round my shoulders. And then I understood that it was the 
spirit of the corn who had spoken, she the sustainer of life. So I 
replied, ' O spirit of the corn, follow not me but abide still upon the 
earth and be strong and be faithful to your purpose. Ever endure 
and do not fail the children of women. It is not time for you to 
follow for Gai'wiio' is only in its beginning.' " Eniaiehuk. 


" ' Now another message to tell your people. 

1 The heaven described by Ganiodai'io' was called the New World because 
it had not been previously known. The generations before had not gone 
there, not having known the will of the Creator as revealed by the prophet. 

2 See plate 13, the Spirit of the Corn. 


" ' There is a dispute in the heaven-world between two parties. 
It is a controversy about you, the children of earth. Two great 
beings are disputing — one is the Great Ruler, the Creator, and 
the other is the evil-minded spirit. 

" ' You who are on earth do not know the things of heaven. 

" ' Now the evil one said, " I am the ruler of the earth because 
when I command I speak but once and man obeys." 

'■ ' Then answered the Great Ruler, " The earth is mine for I 
have created it and you have helped me in no part." 

" ' Now the evil one answered, " I do not acknowledge that you 
have created the earth and that I helped in no part, but I say 
that when I say to men, ' ()l)ey me," they straightway obey, but 
they do not hear your voice." 

" ■ Then the Great Ruler replied, " Truly the children are my own 
for they have never done evil." 

" ' And the evil one answering said, " Nay, the children are mine 
for when I bid one saying. ' Pick up that stick and strike your 
fellow,' they obey me quickly. Aye. the children are mine." 

" ' Then was the Great Ruler very sad and he said, " Once more 
will I send my messengers and tell them my heart and they will tell 
my people and thus I will redeem my own." 

" ' Then the evil one replied, " Even so it will not be long before 
men transgress your commands. I can destroy it with a word for 
they will do my bidding. Verily I delight in the name Hamsse'ono. 
It is very true that they who love my name, though they be on the 
other side of the earth, will find me at their backs the moment 
they pronounce my name." 

" ' Now at that time the Great Ruler spoke to the four messen- 
gers saying, " Go tell mankind that at present they must not call 
me Hawi'n'io', the Great Ruler, until a later time, for the Evil One 
calls himself the Ruler of Mankind. So now whosoever is turned 
into my way must say when lie calls ui)on my name, Hodianok'doo" 
Hed'iohe', our Creator. So also whosoever speaks the name of 
the evil one must say, Segoewa'tha, The Tormentor. Then will the 
evil one know that you have discovered who he is, for it is he who 
will punish the wicked when they depart from this world.' "^ 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 

^ A typical example of Iroquois philosophy. The Iroquois were fond of 
devising stories of this character and many of them reveal the subtle reason- 
ing powers of the Indian in a strikinj? manner. 



" ' Now another message to tell your people. 

1 " ' Now we are of the mind that the cold of winter will take 
life away. Many will be taken away because of the changing cold. 
Moreover some will freeze because they are filled with strong 
drink. Then again when the earth grows warm and the warm 
changes come, many will perish because of strong drink. Now the 
Creator never intended that variations of weather and season, warm 
and cold, should cause death.' " 

2 " ' The Creator made the waters of the earth, the rivers and 
lakes. These too will cause death and some filled with strong 
drink will be swallow^ed up by the waters.' " 

3 " 'And now more. The Creator made fire and this will also 
cause death and some filled with strong drink will be destroyed by 
the flames.' " 

" ' Verily he has said and ordained that they who disobey 
Gai'wiio' should fall into hardships.' "' 
So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" ' Now another message to tell your people. 
' " ' The messengers have given the promise to the prophet that he 
will be able to judge diseases and prescribe remedies.^ So also he 
will be able to see far down into the earth as far as runs the elm's 
root. Then if any trouble comes and anyone asks the help of the 
prophet, he must give it freely, but they who ask must give an 
offering of tobacco. Now there will be some in your care who will 
be taken from your hands for other treatment. No wTong will be 
done and you must bear no ill will. It is said that the events of 
all our days are foreknown, so when the time comes for you to 
exercise your power we will tell you and then you may judge the 
earth and cure diseases.' " 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" * Now another message for your people. 

" Now when my relatives heard all this they said, ' This man must 
be a clairvoyant (henne'yo"').'" 

1 See p. 113, medicine men. 

2 Diviners of mysteries have always been prominent characters among the 
Indians. Their office was to tell their clients the proper medicine society 


" The news spread and (iaiant'vvaka came as a messenger. ^ Now 
lie came to Ganiodai'io' and said, ' Why, having the assurance of 
powers, do you not commence now. Come prophesy ! ' Now he 
had tobacco for an offering. Then he said, ' My daughter is very 

" Now the diviner of mysteries did not respond to his entreaty 
and so Gaiant'waka went out but soon came running back. This 
second time he had the same request and plead more earnestly, but 
without avail. 

" Then it was said that he would not respond to the cry of a 
brother and had no hearing for the voice of a brother. 

"Again Gaiant'waka returned and urged his brother. 

■' Now the people said, ' Have we not something to say to you as 
well as the messengers of the Creator? ' 

" Then he answered and said, ' Truly the people say that I will 
not reason. Verily I am true to my words. Now I can do nothing 
but try but I have not yet the permission of the messengers.' 

" Now he went into a deep sleep and when he awoke he told his 
vision. Now he said that O'gi'we'- should be sung for the sick 

" Now it is said that at that time the first song was in order but 
every part of the song was silent. 

" Now a rumor spread that after all it was not wrong to continue 
the ceremonial dances once forl)idden. So many were sick because 
they had not observed the commanded method of closing the 

This was so when Gai'wiio' was new. Eniaiehuk. 


Now another message. 

" The four messengers arose from a sitting of the prophecy. 

" Now he said that certain songs and parts of songs are not 
known and some societies are new and their powers untried. So 

that would be most efficacious in curing the sick, to discover the where- 
abouts of lost children or articles, to discover what witch was working her 
spells, and to tell fortunes, as well as to interpret dreams. 

1 Cornplantcr again endeavored to get his brother into disfavor with the 
four messengers by forcing him to exercise his powers prematurely. For 
this reason the followers of Handsome Lake to this day regard Corn- 
planter as a malicious character who ever tried to upset the Gai'wiio'. 

2 The death chant, a ceremony belonging to the O'gi'weona' or Society of 
Chanters. See the legend Origin of the Death Dance. 


make a feast and throw tobacco instead of singing. But the chiefs 
said that that plan should be laid aside and notwithstanding, the 
songs should be sung as far as possible. 

Now the messengers said that they should secure provisions 
enough for the feast and be sure. Some have planned to have 
strong drink used at the feast but this must not be tolerated. Only 
food must be used.'"^ 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" Now I will relate another. 

" There is a certain ceremony in the midwinter." It is said that 
it is most important to uphold the customs of midwinter and that 
any one having a part should fulfil it. It is said that to fulfil the 
customs they must go about the neighborhood holding dances. It 
is said that the Creator has sanctioned certain dances for thanks- 

Now the messengers said that (ianio'dai'io' must sing^ early in 
the morning on three mornings and give the cheer-cries of the 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" ' Now another message. 

" ' It is said that all your relatives and friends must be told. 

" ' It is said that when these rites are performed one person is 
to be selected to ofi^er thanks^ to the Creator. Now when thanks 
are rendered begin with the things upon the ground and thank 
upward to the things in the new world above. Afterward any one 
so inclined may arise and thank the Creator in the manner he thinks 
best.' "' 

So it is said. Eniaiehuk. 

^ It is related that at one period whiskey had so far debauched the 
Indians that their once sacred ceremonies, like those of the early Christians 
at Corintli, were made the excuses of the grossest licentiousness and drunken 
revelry. Whiskey had entirely supplanted the feast foods. 

- See the Burning of the White Dog, p. 85. 

3 This song is still sung by the preacher of the Gai'wiio'. The preacher 
stands at the door of the Long House on three successive mornings of the 
new year's season and greets the sunrise with his song. It is said to be a 
charm against high winds and the faithful claim that Gao', the spirit of 
the wind, holds back his fury when the song floats over the settlement. 

* See The Goneowo ceremony, p. 95. 



" ' Now another message. 

" This happened when Gai'wiio' was new. It was the time when 
he dwelt at Diono""sodege'.^ 

"A father and son appeared in Diono"''sodege'. Now the name 
of the son was Gani'seon. They were on a hunting journey and 
came from Gadages'kiio"- with a horse and cart. Now they tarried 
in Diono°''sodege' for several nights before again taking up their 

" It was during the hunting season that the news spread that 
some one had returned from the hunting grounds without a com- 
panion. It was the young man who had returned. So they 
questioned him and asked where his father was. He answered, 
' My father is lost. I went about searching for my father a num- 
ber of days. I walked and searched and signalled with gun dis- 
charges hoping to find him. I could not find him and became weary 
waiting for his return.' So he said." 

" Now Gaiant'waka when he heard this said, ' It is apparent to 
me that the young man has spoken the untruth.' So then they all 
went to the diviner of mysteries and Gaiant'waka spoke to him 
saying, ' It is my opinion that the boy has murdered his own 
father.' And the prophet answering said, ' They have not yet given 
me the power to see things but this will I do. Bring a bullet, a 
knife, and a hatchet that the boy may look upon these things when 
I speak and perhaps the truth will come {sec plate 14). One of 
these things will move though not touched and he shall be the 
witness." So the head men did as bidden and placed the objects as 
directed. In the middle of the floor they spread a blanket and put 
the articles upon it. Then they gathered around it and watched, 
and as they watched he spoke and the bullet moved. Thus it 
happened. Then sj^oke Ganio'dai'io'. " This brings the confirmation 
of the rumor. Truly the youth has murdered his father, and 
furthermore I say that the crime was committed between Ganos'^ 
and Hanenk'gaek.* On the south side of a mountain, where half 
way up an elm is broken, leaning over on the downhill side to the 
west lies the body buried in the leaves of the top branches. He, the 
father, is buried in the leaves.' So he said when he spoke. The 

^ Cornplanter village. 

2 Cattaraugus village, the principal town of the Cattaraugus region. 

^ Franklin, Pa. 

^ Oil Citv, Pa. 


chiefs and head-men appointed a delegation to see if all he had said 
were true. So the}' went as they had been told and found the body 
of the father and brought it ])ack with theni." Eniaiehuk. 


" ' Now another message to tell your people. 

" ' You may ask three questions concerning three privileges when 
you go among your relatives at the ceremony of Nisko'wukni^ and 
ask what one is fitted for then. 

"'Who among you likes best to call upon the afflicted? Who 
among you loves to commune alone in the forests? Who among 
you is most anxious concerning religious conditions?"" 

So they asked him. Eniaiehuk. 


" ' Now another message. 

" ' Now this matter will devolve upon you. 

" ' The people will assemble in council and ask. " Who among 
us is able to say, ' I compel you to assemble? 

" ' Now when the ([uestion is set forth each person must make 
reply. The chiefs must demand it.' 

" Now it happened that he fulfilled the requirements and all the 
people assembled and with one accord acclaimed that Ganio'dai'io' 
should lead them and that they should never murmur. 

Now that the people had done, he was patient to learn the 

" The council adjourned and the messengers came and questioned 
him saying, ' How did you understand your people ? ' 

" He answered, ' The majority consented that I should lead 
them." - 

" Then the messengers replied, ' Trulv the greater number will 
follow you.' " 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


Now another message. 
" ' It is this : W'e, the messengers of our Creator, see strong 
drink used during the season when corn is planted. Now let those 

^ February, the moon of the midwinter, the time of thanksgiving. 

" Because the people of this council elected tliat Handsome Lake should 
have authority over them iie is ever after called Sedwago'wane. or chief 
leader, or our great teacher. 


who use this evil drink know that it consumes the elements of life 
They must repent.' '' 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" ' Now another message. 

" ' It is a custom for thanksgiving to be made over the hills of 
planted corn.^ Let the head one of the family make an invocation 
over the planted hills that the corn may continue to support life. 
Now this will be a right thing and whosoever asks the help of the 
Creator will receive it.' " 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" ' So now another. 

" ' Now it is understood that Dio'he''ko" (the corn, bean and 
squash spirits), have a secret medicine, o'sagan'da' and o'sdTs'dani. 
So soak your seed corn in these tw.o medicines before you plant 
your fields. The medicines grow on the flat lands near streams.' " 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" * Now another message. 

" ' Now there are some who have boasted that they could drink 
all the strong drink in the world. Now we, the messengers, say 
that they who thus idly boast will never live to accomplish what 
they boast. White men will ever distil the evil liquor.' "- 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" ' Now another message. 

" ' Tell vour friends and relatives that there will be two divisions 

1 The ceremony of invoking the Creator over the hills of corn was an old 
one and like many other old customs was indorsed by the prophet. This 
custom is still continued among some of the Iroquois. " When the leaf of 
the dogwood is the size of a squirrel's ear, the planting season has come. 
Before the dawn of the first day of the planting a virgin girl is sent to the 
fields where she scatters a few grains of corn to the earth as she invokes 
the assistance of the spirit of the corn for the harvest." 

2 This section with others of similar import brings out the prophet's intense 
dislike of idle boasting. 


of miiul' among the chiefs and head-men and among the people. 
Nevermore will your race be united.' " 
So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" ' Now another message. 

" Now the messengers commanded him to give attention and he 
did. Then he saw a great assembly and the assembly was singing: 

' The whole earth is here assembled, 
The whole world may come to us. 
We are ready.' 

'* Then said the messengers, ' What did you see when you gave 
attention? ' 

■' He answered, ' I saw a great gathering of beings and the 
gatiiering was singing and the words of the song were : 

' The whole earth is here assembled, 
The whole world may come to us. 
We are ready.' 

" Then said the messengers, ' It is very true. The beings that 
you saw resemble human creatures. It is true that they are sing- 
ing. Now the assembly is a gathered host of medicines for healing. 
Now let this be your ceremony when you wish to employ the 
medicine in a plant : First offer tobacco. Then tell the plant in 
gentle words what you desire of it and pluck it from the roots. 
It is said in the upper world that it is not right to take a plant for 
medicine without first talking to it. Let not one ever be taken 
without first speaking.' "' 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 

^ Tiiis seemingly obscure section is cleared of its mystery when the 
preacher explains that the divisions of mind refer to the Gaiwios'tuk or 
Christian and Ongwe'o"weka' or Indian parties. '" Dewadia'ke' gani'goi', 
broken in tivain, tJic nuity of purpose." is Chief Cornplanter's term. 

-The ceremony of gathering herbs. When a Seneca wishes to gather 
medicinal herl)s, he goes into the woods wdiere tiiey grow and builds a small 
fire. Wiien there is a quantity of glowing embers he stands before it and as 
he speaks at intervals casts a pinch of tobacco on the coals. He speaks to 
the spirits of the medicines telling them tliat lie desires their healing virtues 
to cure his people of their afflictions. 

" ^'ou liave said tliat you are ready to Ileal the earth." chants the gatherer 
of herl)s, " so now I claim you for my medicine. Give me of your healing 
virtues to purge and cleanse and cure. I will not destroy you but plant your 
seed that you may come again and yield fourfold more. Spirits of the herbs, 
I do not take your hves without purpose but to make you the agent of heal- 



" ' Now another message. 

" 'It has been a custom when a person knows of a heahng herb 
to ask payment for giving it to a patient. Now we say that this is 
not right. It is not right to demand compensation for treating the 
sick. If such is done it adds greater afflictions to the sick one. 
The Creator has given (Hfferent people knowledge of different 
things and it is the Creator's desire that men should e:rploy their 
knowledge to help one another, especially those who are afflicted. 
Now moreover the person hcli)ed out ought only to give tobacco for 
an offering." " 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" ' Now another message. 

" ' Now it is said that your fathers of old never reached the true 
lands of our Creator nor did they ever enter the house of the 
tormentor. Ganos'ge'.^ It is said that in some matters they did the 
will of the Creator and that in others they did not. They did both 
good and bad and none was either good or bad. They are there- 
fore in a place separate and unknown to us, we think, enjoying 
themselves.' " 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" ' Now another message. 

" 'Now it is said that your people must change certain customs. 
It has been the custom to mourn at each recurring anniversary of 
the death of a friend or relative.- It is said that while you are 

ing, for we are very .sick. You have said that all the world might come to 
you, so I have come. I give you thanks for your lienetits and thank the 
Creator for your gift." 

When the last puff of tohacco smoke had arisen the gatlierer of herljs 
begins his work. He digs the plant from the roots and breaking off the seed 
stalks drops the pods into the hole and gently covers them over with fertile 
leaf mold. 

" The plant will come again," he says, " and I have not destroyed life 
but iielped increase it. So the plant is willing to lend me of its virtue.'" 
Gahadoudi'li. {Woodland Border), Seneca. 

1 The evil spirit has no domain except his house. A land in wliich the 
condemned spirit might roam would not be .so terrible but eternal confine- 
ment within a house was considered a horrible fate by the liberty-loving 

2 See Funeral and Mourning Customs, p. 107. 


upon the earth you do not realize the harm that this works upon 
the departed. 

" ' Now moreover it is said that when an infant is born upon the 
earth with which the parents are dissatisfied, it knows and says, 
" I will return to my home above the earth.' " 

" Now it is said that our grief adds to the sorrows of the dead. 
It is said that it is not possible to grieve always. Ten days shall be 
the time for mourning and when our friends depart we must lay 
grief aside. When you, the beings of earth, lose one of your num- 
ber you must bury your grief in their grave. Some will die today 
and some tomorrow for the number of our days is known in the 
sky-world. So hereafter do not grieve. Now it is said that when 
the ten days have elapsed to prei)are a feast and the soul of the dead 
will return and partake of it with you. It is said moreover that 
you can journey with the dead only as far as the grave. It is said 
that when you follow a body to the grave you nmst have prepared 
for that journey as if to travel afar. Put on your finest clothing 
for every human creature is on its journey graveward. It is said 
that the bodies of the dead have intelligence and know what 
transpires about them.^ It is true.' " 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" Now it is said that when Ganio'dai'io' was at Tonawanda 
spreading Gai'wiio' it happened that a certain man named 
Segwai''do"gwi said, ' I will also send a message to the four 
messengers and ask whether I am right in my belief in repentance 
and right doing.' So he sent his message upward in tobacco 

Now when the messengers arose from a council with Ganio'dai'io' 
he reported what they had told him. " It is a hard matter for he, 
the questioner, is two-minded." So he said. 

Then Segwai''do"gwi said, "Now this will I do : I will give a 
string of wampum, ot'go'a, to the chiefs for a proof of my 
repentance, for though I have been thinking, yet I can not discover 
that I am two-minded.'' 

Now when Gai'wiiostuk (the Christian religion) came this man 
was the first to accept its teaching. When the chiefs heard of it 
they went to him and otTered to return his wampum. 

Then said the man, " I \x\\\ not turn back because it is for the 
good of all that I have this religion." 

1 See, The death feast, p. no. 


Now all the chiefs and head-men could not persuade him to 
return to the right way. 
So it is said. Eniaiehuk. 


" Now another message. 

" Now it is said that you must relate what the messengers say 
about the coming end of the earth. Relate how all those who re- 
fuse to believe in Gai'wiio' will suffer hardships.^ Now when the 
earth is al:)out to end the chiefs and head-men will disagree and that 
will be a sign. So also, the Honon'doint will disagree. Then will 
the relations know the truth." 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" Now another message. 

" Now we say that you must tell your friends and relatives that 
there will be a time when all the earth will withhold its sustaining 
foods. Then will come the end of the world and those who refuse 
to believe in Gai'wiio' will suffer great hardships." 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" Now another message. 

" Now we think that a time will come wdien a great plague will 
kill many people and no one will know its cause. Then will you 
know that the end is near and those who do not believe will suffer 
great hardships." 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" Now another message. 

" Now we think that a time will come when a woman will be seen 
performing her witch spells in the daylight. Then will you know 
that the end is near. She will run through the neighborhood boast- 
ing how many she has slain by her sorcery. Then will you see how 
she who refused to believe in (jai'wiio' will suffer punishment." 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" Now another message. 

" In that time you will hear many rumors of men who say, ' I 
have spoken with the Creator.' So also will you see many wonders 

1 See Introduction, p. 26. 


but they will not endure for they will be the work of the evil 

" X'erily we say that there will be none other than you who will 
receive a message from the Creator through us. This truth will be 
proclaimed when the end comes." 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" Now another message. 

" In that time every poisonous creature will appear. These 
creatures the Creator has imprisoned in the underworld and they 
are the creations of the evil-minded spirit. Now it is our opinion 
that when they are released many people will be captured and 
poisoned by them. Men will see these hardships when they fail to 
believe in Gai'wiio'." 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" Now another message. 

" Now there will be some who will enter into a sleep. When they 
lie down they will be in health and as they sleep the Creator will 
withdraw their lives for they are true. To the faithful this will 
happen." ^ 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" Now another message. 

" Now we think that the Creator will stop the earth and heavens. 
All the powers of nature will he suspend. Now they will see this 
who refuse to believe in Gai'wiio'." 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" Now another message. 

" Now we think that when the end comes the earth will be de- 
stroyed by fire and not one upon it will escape for all the earth will 
be enveloped in flames and all those who refuse to believe in 
Gai'wiio' will be in it." 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 

1 Because Handsome Lake did not die in this manner some of his half 
believing followers at Onondaga repudiated his teaching. 


Recitation of the third day 


" Now another message. Tell it to those at Tonawanda. 

" Now they said to him, ' Watch a certain place.' So he did and 
he saw a certain person holding meat in his hands. The man was 
rejoicing and was well clothed and fed and his name was 
Ta'donda'ieha", and he recognized him." 

" Then said they to him. ' How is it? " 

" He answered, ' I recognized Ta'donda'ieha' and he held meat in 
his hands.' So answered he who talked religiously." 

" Then the messengers answered, ' Truly you saw a man with 
meat enjoying himself. He was joyous because he was a pros- 
perous and successful hunter and gave game as presents to his 
neighbors. So his neighbors were grateful and thanked him. Now 
the man you saw has departed from the earth. In his earth-life he 
cleansed himself each day, visited and enjoyed himself in his best 
clothing. He was ever good to his fellow-beings and so he is 
blessed and will receive the reward reserved for him by his 

So they said and he said. Eniaichuk. 


" Now another message. 

" This will happen. 

" You will sing three times and the third time you sing you will 
step into oya'dedion'diade", the other world. ^ That you go there 
will be the earnest wish of all who have heard your message." 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" Now another message. 
Every person has a song to sing when the time comes to leave 
the earth. When a person is departing he must sing that song 

1 It was customary for the friends and relatives to address tlie body of 
the dead and give expression to one's desires, etc. The soul when it reached 
the heaven-world would then tell the Great Ruler who would attend to the 
wishes expressed. 




and continue to sing on liis journey to tlie otlier world.' They 
will do this who have repented and who helieve in Gai'wiio'." 
So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" Now another message. 

" Now the messengers said. ' Look you l)ack in a vision to Corn- 
planter village and the place where the creek emjjties into the river.' 
So he looked and saw a large numher of canoes gathered there. 
Many people were assembled and there were barrels of strong 
drink at the place. The people were making much noise. Now 
moreover there was a man there, hojjping from canoe to canoe and 
singing Dji'haya, the song of the evil-minded s])irit. Now the 
words that he sang were these : 

' Mr>re liappy am I in my own liousc, 
Far more happy there than here.' 

"Yet the man seemed to be greatly enjoying himself. 

" Then said the messengers, ' You have been observing, now 
what did you see ? ' 

He answered, ' I saw a man hopping from canoe to canoe singing 
the song of the evil-minded one. He said that his house was more 
happy a place than that where he was. The ])eople about I should 
judge were tilled with strong drink.' So he said in answer to the 

1 Ideas of the soul. The following ideas of the liuman soul were anciently 
held by the Iroquois and their influence on tlie teachings of Handsome 
Lake's teachings will he noted upon reading the Gai'wiio': 

Every soul has a patli to its (k^stiny after death. 

Every soul retains its personal identity whatever form it may inhaliit. 

Soul differs from life. 

When the soul leaves the body life does not necessarily. 

When life leaves the liody the soul generally does, though not always 
unmediately hut may linger for ten days. 

The soul may pass from a living body and enter any object or go to any 
place to acquire wisdom and returning reveal it to the person in dreams or 

Should a jierson refuse persistently to heed these warning visions the snul 
is liable to desert him, leaving the person simply a creature without power 
to resist or understand the influence of the various spirits good or bad. 

Thinking that by some oversight or evil doing that he may lose his soul 
the Indian often ofifers sacrifice to his evil spirit. This is to satisfy his evil 
spirit with other things than wrong doing and thereby not offend his good 


'• Then answered the messengers, ' What you say is true. The 
man was the punisher and his dehght is to see people filled with 
strong drink.' " 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" ' Now another message. 

" ' Now it is the time for our departure. We shall now go on a 
journev and then you shall see the coming of the fourth messenger, 
the journey of our friends and the works of the living of earth. 
More, you will see the house of the punisher and the lands of our 
Creator." "' . 

So they said. Eniaiehuk. 


" ' Now another message. 

" Suddenlv as they looked, a road slowly descended from the 
south sky' and came to where they were standing. Now thereon 
he saw the four tracks of the human race going in one direction. 
The footprints were all of different sizes from small to great. Now 
moreover a more brilliant light than the light of earth appeared." 

vSo they said. Eniaiehuk. 


" ' Now they said unto him. ' W'e will tarry here a while in order 
that you may see.' 

" Now as he watched and believed, he saw a large woman sitting 
there. Now the woman was grasping frantically at all things within 
her reach, and it seemed that she could not stand because of her 
great size. That was what he saw. 

" Then they said to him, ' What did you see? ' 

" He answered, ' It is hard to say. I saw a woman sitting and 
she was large of size and snatching at everything about her. I am 
of the opinion that she can not rise.' So he answered when he 

" Then the messengers answered. ' It is true. That which you 
saw was the evil of stinginess. She can not stand and thus she will 

' The great sky-road of the Gai'wiio' is the milky way. The souls of the 
dead are supposed to journey over the broad band and divide at the forks. 
The multitude of stars are thought to be the footprints of the dead. 


remain forever. Thus it will be with those who forsake religious 
teachings and think more of the things of earth than of the new 
world above. (Having glutted themselves with the things of earth 
they are unable to stand upon the heaven road.)' " ^ 
So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" Now they said, ' We shall proceed." Now the farther they 
went the more brilliant the light became. They had not gone far 
when the four messengers said, ' Now we will stop again. Look 
attentively at what you see.' 

" So he looked and saw three groups of people and each group 
was of a different size. The first was large, the second small and 
the third still smaller. 

" Then the messengers asked him, ' What do you see?' 

" He answered, ' I saw three groups, the first a large group, the 
second half as large as the first and the third still smaller.' That 
is what he said when he answered. 

'■ Then they replied, ' Truly you have seen. The groups repre- 
sent the people of earth. The first group you saw was composed of 
those who have not repented; the second group was inclined half 
way, and the third group, the smallest one, was composed of those 
who have repented. They are protected by the true belief in 
Gai'wiio'.' " 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" So they proceeded a short distance and again came to a halt. 
Then the messengers pointed out a spot and bade him watch at- 
tentively. Then he saw a house strongly built and within it he saw 
three different things. The first was a i)air of handcuff's, the second 
a whip and the third a hang-rope." 

" Then asked the messengers, ' What did you see ? ' 
" He answered, ' The house I saw was strongly built and within 
the house I saw three different things. The first was a pair of 
handcuff's, the second a whip and the third a hangman's rope.' So 
he answered. 

1 Those who gain great riches and lack humihty can not stand upon the 
sky-road nor can they walk. The poor and meek only can travel skyward 
and not even the poor unless their ways have been humble and marked with 
virtue. Thus it is said, " It is better to be poor on earth and rich in the 
sky-world than to have earth riches and no heaven." 


" Then they repHed, ' Truly it is a strongly built house. It is a 
prison. Now it is true that three things are there for punishment. 
How hard il is for a transgressor to see that he should be punished; 
yet it is the cry of the people that the laws of the white man are 
better than the teachings of (jai'wiio'. This frightens even the 
Great Spirit for he knows the punishment of those who say such 
things." " 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" So they proceeded and it was not long before they said, ' We 
must stop here.' Then they pointed in a certain direction and com- 
manded him to watch. So he watched and as he did he saw a house 
with a spire and a path leading into the house and none out. There 
was no door, neither were there any windows in the house. Within 
was a great noise, wailing and crying, and the house was hot. 

" Then the messengers asked him what he saw. 

" He answered, ' I saw a house with a spire and a path leading to 
the house. There was no door, neither were there any windows in 
the house. Within was a great noise, wailing and crying, and 
the house was hot." 

" Then they replied, ' You have truly seen. It is a hard matter 
for Indians to embrace these conditions, that is, to embrace the 
belief of Bible believers.' " 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


So they proceeded and had not gone far when the messengers 
said, ' Look downward upon the Buffalo Creek reservation.' 

'■ Se he looked and the place seemed honeycombed and covered 
with a net. 

" Then the messengers asked him what he saw. 

" He answered, ' I saw the Buft'alo Creek reservation and it 
seemed honeycombed like ice and covered with a net.' So he replied. 

" Then the mes.sengers said, ' Truly ! W'c think that this reserva- 
tion will fall." Now they said moreover that it was the duty of the 
chiefs to preserve it but it should be hard for some should take an 
upper hand.' " 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" So they proceeded a little ways farther and soon they said, 
' We will stop here.' Then they pointed out a certain spot and said, 
' Watch ! Look upon the eastern heavens and observe ! ' 


" So he looked and saw two immense drops (or balls of liquid) 
hanging, one red and one yellow. It seemed that they were sus- 
pended only for an instant and would momentarily fall. 

" Then the messengers asked, " What did you see there? ' 

" He answered, ' I saw two drops, one red and one yellow, sus- 
pended as if about to fall.' 

" Then the messengers replied, ' Truly you have spoken. It is 
so. Should one of those drops fall it would bring great calamity 
upon the earth. Many people would leave the earth should one 
drop but we are doing our utmost to prevent such an event.' " 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" So they proceeded but had not gone a long distance before they 
said, ' We will stop and watch a certain place. Now listen to the 

■■ So he listened and as well as he could understand he thought 
that he heard wailing and mourning. The sounds seemed to be the 
crying of children. 

" Then the messengers asked, ' What did you observe? ' 

" He answered, ' I thought that I heard the wailing of the aged 
and the crying of children.' 

" Then the messengers replied, ' It is true. What you have heard 
is the substance of life going back to the Creator. WHien this time 
conies there will be great misery upon the earth.' '' 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" So they proceeded a little ways farther and in a short time they 
reached a certain spot and stopped. 

" Then said the messengers, ' Look toward the setting sun.' 
" So he looked and saw. Now as he looked he seemed to see a 
man pacing to and fro. He seemed to be a white man and in his 
hand he seemed to have a bayonet with which he prodded the 
ground. Now moreover he seemed very angry. 
" Then said the messengers, ' What did you see ? ' 
" He answered, ' I saw what seemed to be a man pacing to and 
fro. He seemed to be a white man and in his hand he seemed to 
have a bayonet with which he prodded the ground, and, moreover, 
it seemed that he was angry.' So he said when he answered. 

" Then the messengers said, ' It is true. He is a white man and 
in a temper. It is true. Indians must not help him and the head- 


men must lionestly strive to prevent their followers from helping 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" So they proceeded on their journey and had not gone far when 
they stopped. 

" Then the messengers said, ' Watch attentively.' Then they 
pointed out to him a certain spot midway between the earth and the 
clouds. So he watched there. Now this is true. He saw a house 
suspended there and on the veranda with a railing about it, a man 
walked and with him was a penny dog (kwen'nis dji''ya). Now 
moreover the man was rejoicing and he was a white man. 

" Then said the messengers, ' What did you see? ' 

" He answered, ' I saw a house suspended in the air and on the 
porch with a railing about it a man was walking and with him was a 
penny dog. Now moreover the man was a white man.' 

" Then the messengers said. * Truly you have seen. It is said 
that the man is the first and oldest president of the United States. 
Now he enjoys himself and he is the only white man so near the 
new world of our Creator. Now it is said that there was once a 
time when the Thirteen Fires and the King- were in trouble. The 
Thirteen Fires were victorious and this man won the victory from 
the king. Said the king. " You have overpowered me, so now I 
release everything that was in my control, even these Iroquois who 
were my helpers. It rests with you what shall be done with them. 
Let them be to you a thing for a sacrifice." Then said the presi- 
dent, " I shall let them live and go back to the places that are theirs 
for they are an independent people." So it is said. Now this man 
did a great work. He has ordered things that we may enjoy our- 
selves, as long as the sun shines and waters run. This is the doing 
of our Great Creator.' "^ 

So thev said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 

1 This section refers to the " war in the west," probably General Har- 
rison's campaign against Tecumseh in 181 1. Red Jacket and all the principal 
chiefs were anxious to preserve peace and did all within their power to 
prevent their young warriors from enlisting on either side but were not 
entirely successful. The issue was of such moment that the prophet deemed 
it wise to reveal the will of the four messengers in the matter. 

2 The word here is feminine and should be translated queen but this would 
manifestly not be in accord with truth. The error was made by Chief John 
Jacket who wrote out the Gai'wiio' in Seneca in i860, during the reign of 
Queen Victoria. 

3 See Washington and the Iroquois, p. 137. 



" So then they proceeded on their journey Ijut had not gone far 
when they stopped. 

'• Then the messengers said, ' Watch,' and pointed to a certain 
spot toward the setting sun. 

" So he watched and saw a large object revolving. It was white 
and moving slowly. 

"Then said the four messengers, 'What did you see?' 

" He answered, ' I saw a large object revolving. It was white and 
I moving slowly.' 

" Then said the messengers, ' It is true. The thing is that which 
regulates the air over the earth. It is that which we call the (Jda'eo 
(the veil over all). It is said that it would bring great calamity 
should it revolve too fast. Should it turn faster it would injure 
mankind. Now we are the regulators and watchers of the veil 
over all.' " 

So they said and he said, luiiaiehuk. 


" So they proceeded on their journey and it happened that a 
vision appeared unto them. They seemed to be advancing toward an 
approaching man. Soon they met him and passed. Now when they 
were a distance apart they turned and he was facing them. So they 
greeted each other. Then said the man, ' vSedwago'wane, I must 
ask you a question. Did you never hear your grandfathers say that 
once there was a certain man upon the earth across the great waters 
who was slain by his own people? ' That was what he said when 
he spoke. 

" Then answered Sedwago'wane, ' It is true. I have heard my 
grandparents say this.' 

" Then answered the man, ' I am he.' (Sega"'hedus, He zvlio 
resurrects). And he turned his palms upward and they were 
scarred and his feet were likewise and his breast was pierced by a 
spear wound. It appeared tliat his hands and his feet were torn 
by iron nails. 

"All this was true. It could be seen and blood was fresh ui)on 

" Then said the man, ' They slew me because of their independ- 
ence and unbelief. So I have gone home to shut the doors of heaven 
that they may not see me again until the earth passes away. Then 



will all the people cry to me for succor, and when I come it will be 
in this wise : my face will be sober and I shall turn it to my people. 
Now let me ask how your people receive your teachings.' 

" He answered, ' It is my opinion that half my people are inclined 
to believe in me.' 

" Then answered he, ' You are more successful than I for some 
believe in you but none in me. I am inclined to believe that in the 
end it will also be so with you. Now it is rumored that you are 
but a talker with spirits (djis'ga'Mataha" M- Now it is true that I 
am a spirit and the one of him who was murdered. Now tell your 
people that they will become lost when they follow the ways of the . 
white man." " 

So that is what he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" So they proceeded on their journey and had not gone far when 
they came to a halt. 

" Then the messengers pointed out a certain spot and said, 
' Watch attentively," and beheld a man carrying loads of dirt and 
depositing them in a certain spot. He carried the earth in a wheel- 
barrow and his task was a hard one. Then he knew that the name 
of the man was Sagoyewat'ha, a chief. 

"Then asked the messengers, 'What did you see?' 

" He answered, ' I beheld a man carrying tlirl in a wheelbarrow 
and that man had a laborious task. His name was Sagoyewat'ha, 
a chief." 

" Then answered the messengers, ' You have spoken truly. Sago- 
yewat'ha is the name of the man who carries the dirt. It is true 
that his work is laborious and this is for a punishment for he was 
the one who first gave his consent to the sale of Indian reservations. 
It is said that there is hardship for those who part with their lands 
for money or trade. So now you have seen the doom of those who 
repent not. Their eternity will be one of punishment." ""-' 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 

^ See Spiritism, p. 126. 

- The foHowers of the Gai'wiio' to this day mention the name of Red Jacket 
with contempt. While they acknowledge his mental superiority they have 
no other admiration for him. He was ever the enemy of Cornplanter and 
Ganiodaiio with whom he had frequent collision and recognized the sachem- 
prophet only as an impostor. The teachings of Ganiodaiio have done much 
to prejudice the Iroquois against Ked Jacket. 



" Now again they took up their journey and had not traveled far 
when they saw a crowd on both sides of the road. And when they 
came to where it was they saw that they were at the forks of the 
road. One road, on the right, was a narrow one and the tracks 
upon it were mostly those of children and all were pointed in one 
direction. Few adults had their tracks on this road, the road rough 
and wide. Now as they watched they saw a woman approaching 
the forks of the road from behind them. She came to where the 
road divided and as she halted before the roads a man who stood 
to the left shouted, ' To this side." ( Now the road of the wicked 
is owa'etga", a rough road. ) Then the man on the right said, 
' Not so. This woman has done her whole duty. She has truly 
repented.' Then answered the man on the left, ' You are wrong, 
for her repentance has been of short duration and so of slight elTect. 
But the man on the right replied, ' Truly in her earth-life she re- 
pented and was faithful to her promises. This is all that is required 
and she will walk upon the narrow road." 

" Now one of the messengers turned to him and said, ' The 
woman has lived a repented life for three days and has entered 
into the happy eternity. It was not an easy matter for her to do so 
of herself, but we, the messengers, have plead before the Creator 
and he has heard us. Three times we assist every one who believes 
to continue in the faith of the. ( iai'wiio". At this division in the 
great road we guide the spirits of the earth into Tain'tciade 
(heaven land). :\t the forks of the road the spirits of the dead 
are divided. The narrow road leads to the pleasant lands of the 
Creator and the wide and rough road leads to the great lodge of 
the punisher.' " 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" So now another. 

" ' Verily you have seen the breast of a man hanging here bv the 
road and in the center of that breast you saw a bullet hole.^ Now 
we have caused this thing to be placed there. All will see it and 
he will see it who did the wrong when he comes upon the great 
road and know that he nnist turn aside and enter upon a journey 
over the wide and rough road.' " 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 

1 See section 56. 



'' Now again they told him that they would take up their journey 
and as they went they drew near to the house of the punisher. As 
they went over the broad road they walked well on the sides for the 
path was very stony. Now, strange, this was true ; some great force 
seemed pushing them onward toward the house of the punisher.^ 
Soon they began to inhale heated air and soon they heard the far 
away echoes of mournful cries borne on the blasts of the hot wind. 
At times the air was sulTocating and the cries of the doomed were 

So he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" Now they approached a great lodge. It seemed constructed of 
iron that had been highly heated and allowed to cool. Within the 
building hot vapor was rising from the fire pits. 

" Now the messengers spoke saying, ' Let us tarry here a while." 
Then one of the beings took from his bosom a crystal and pointed it 
at the lodge. He approached holding the glass at arm's length and 
as he came near the lodge arose to the height of the man so power- 
ful was the crystal." Eniaiehuk. 


" Now they saw and then everyone knew that the house was very 
long and extended far out of the eye's reach. Now this is true. 
When a certain woman within saw the four and him drawing near 
she stretched out her arms and cried for help. Then answered the 
four, ' It is beyond our power to alter your condition now. Our 
work was with you on earth. Too late.' " 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" Now as they looked they saw a being walking about as if he 
were the master of the lodge. He seemed continually distorting 
himself. At times horns shot out from his forehead, at times a 
cloven foot api)earcd and at times a tail was visible. - 

1 The prophet here alludes to the ease with which one may glide over the 
broad road. " It is no work to sin," says the preacher, " for the devil 
furnishes the legs for you." 

2 The prophet has very evidently borrowed his devil from transatlantic 


" Then said the four messengers to Ganioclai'io', ' That being is 
the punisher. It is he who torments those who have refused the 
. words of Gai'wiio' when they heard them on the earth.' " 
So they said. Eniaiehuk. 


" In a loud voice the punisher cried to a certain person saying, 
' Come hither.' The punisher held a drinking vessel in his hand 
and within it was molten metal and thrusting it in the hands of the 
man he had called he said, ' Now wann yourself again as was your 
custom while on the earth for you loved hot drink.' Now the man 
pleaded but the punisher compelled him to swallow the molten 
metal. Then the man screamed in a loud voice and fell prone upon 
the ground with vapor steaming from his throat. Now he cried 
no more. 

" Then said the four messengers, ' You have seen the manner of 
punishing those who persist in taking the fiery drink.' " 

So they said. Eniaiehuk. 


" Now as they looked the master of the house spoke saying, 
' Come.' Now the master knew the name of every one within the 
house. And straightway a woman came to where he stood. Then 
he grabbed her and forced her body into a great cauldron filled with 
a boiling liquid. Frequently he looked down into the cauldron to 
see if the woman had come again to the top. Suddenly she shot 
to the surface crying in a strange voice like some unknown animal 
and then sank down again. Soon again she appeared and cried, 
' O, it is too hot ! I should have an interval in which to cool my- 
self!' Answered the punisher, 'Thou are not one-minded,' and 
jerking her out he flung her on one side. But the woman screeched 
in agony, ' ( ), it is too cold ! ' and her complaint w^as continuous 
and she moaned, ' It is too cold ! ' Then the punisher thrust her 
back into the boiling cauldron and immediately her bones rattled to 
the bottom. Such was the punishment given by the keeper of the 
house of torment. 

" Then spoke the four messengers and said, ' This is the punish- 
ment given those who practice witchcraft. The woman whom you 
saw will suffer two deaths in this place and when her body is re- 
duced to dust the punisher will gather them up again and conjure 
the dust back into a living body and continue his sport until finally 


he has become weary when he will blow her ashes to destruction. 
Such things happen to those who will not believe in Gai'wiio'.' " 
So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" Now he saw a certain nude woman connng out from a crowd 
and in all the hair of her body were writhing serpents. Her cheeks 
were parched to the bone where she had been wont to color them 
and likewise where her hair was parted there was no flesh. Now 
she was greatly ashamed but she could not cover her nakedness. So 
in this condition he saw her. 

"Then said the four messengers, 'Saw thou that woman? In 
life she was wont to give on'oityi'yende, [secret powders] to men 
to attract them to her. So you have seen the punishment meted 
out to those who do tiiis and do not repent." " 

So they said. Eniaiehuk. 


" Now they revealed another. 

" Now the master of the house looked about and saw another 
person. So he said, ' Come here, my nephew, I wish to see you flog 
your wife as was your custom on the earth.' The punisher then 
pointed out the image of a woman heated hot with fire and com- 
manded the man to beat the image. Then the man pleaded with 
moans to be released from the command but the i)unisher forced 
him to strike the image with bis bare hands, and the man fell in 
agony prostrate upon the floor screaming. So he saw. 

" Then said the four messengers, ' You have seen the punish- 
ment given to the man who beat his wife. Thus it will be with all 
who fail to repent and fail to believe in Gai'wiio'. Now such was the 
evil that this man did to grieve his Creator." " 

So they said and he said. Eniaiehuk. 


" Now they revealed another. 

" The master of the house called out the names of two persons, 
saying. ' Come here, my nephews,'' and straightway they stood 
before him. Then said he. ' Commence an argument, you two, for 
vou are the man and wife who in vour earth-life were wont to 

^ The Seneca term means. " my sister's children," thus both nephews and 


quarrel continually, so quarrel again ! " Then when he saw that 
the people were reluctant he compelled them to argue. Then they 
disputed until their eyes bulged from their heads, their tongues 
lolled out and flames of fire shot from ganii'shoo'. So this was 
what he saw. 

" Then said the messengers. ' This is the i)unislrnent reserved 
for those who ciuarrel without ceasing and fail to repent.' " 

So they said. Eniaiehuk. 


" Now they showed him another. 

" Now the punisher called out a certain woman's name saying, 
' Come to me, my niece,' and straightway she came. Then said he, 
' It was once your delight gaknowe'haat.' As he said this he lifted 
up an ol)ject from a pile and thrust it within her. Now the ol)ject 
was like ha'ji'no' ganiia'', and it was red hot. Then she cried aloud 
in agony and she fell with steam issuing from her body. Now 
there were three piles of ga'naa", the first white, the second red and 
the third black and all were ga'naa'.' So this was what he saw. 

" Then the messengers said, ' You have seen the punishment of 
the immoral woman.' " 

So they said. Eniaiehuk. 


" Now they showed him another. 

" Now the punisher called out in a loud voice saying. ' "Sly 
nephew, come hither,' and the man stood before him. ' Now, 
nephew, play your violin as was once your delight.' The punisher 
handed the man a l)ar of hot iron and forced him to rub it upon 
his arm. So he played and the cords of his arm were the strings 
of the instrument and made the music. So in great agony he 
cried and screamed until he fell.^ 

" Then said the four messengers, ' You have seen the punish- 
ment of the man who failed to repent.' " 

So they said. Eniaiehuk. 


" Now they reveale<l another. 

" Now the punisher called out in a loud voice and commanded 
two persons to appear before him. Now when they stood before 

1 The pagan Indians detest the "' fiddle " and " hddle dances " as things of 
great evil and assert that they produce as mucli wickedness as drunken- 


him he liaiuled them what seemed a pack of red hot iron cards. 
Then he forced the two to sit down facing each other and com- 
j)elle(l tliem to shuffle the cards and as they (Hd flames spurted 
out from between them. So they cried out in great agony, sucked 
their fingers in their mouths, handled the cards again until their 
flesh was eaten away and the meat fell off. So this is what he saw. 

" Then the messengers said, ' '["his is the punishment meted out 
to those who handle cards and repent not.' " 

So they said. Eniaiehuk. 


" \'erily he saw those who were upon the earth and those who 
were alive and he saw the wicked in the house of torment. He 
saw (iowono""'gowa [she great talker], Gakon'go' [she-glutton 
animal], Ganonjoni'yon [hanging kettle] and Hano'es [head- 
eater |. \'erily he saw these four persons. 

" Then said the four messengers, ' These four have committed 
the great sin and can not be forgiven.' " 

So they said. Eniaiehuk. 


■■ Then said the messengers. ' We will proceed on our journey. 
Jt would be a hard thing should we tarry too long and meet the 
Creator on the road before we reach his pleasant lands. If we 
should meet him you should be compelled to stay here forever.' "^ 

So they said. Eniaiehuk. 


" Then they went out upon the narrow rcjad and had not gone far 
upon it when a far n.ore brilliant light appeared. It was then that 
they smelled the fragrant odors of the flowers along the road. 
Delicious looking fruits were growing on the wayside and every 
kind of bird flew in the air above them. The most marvelous and 
beautiful things were on every hand. And all these things were on 
the heaven road." Eniaiehuk. 


'■ .So they continued on their journc\- and after a short time they 
came to a hall. Then sj)okc the messengers. ' This place is called, 
'■ the s])ring " and it is a i)lace for rest." Then behold be saw the 
spring and be thougbl that be bad never seen so beautiful and 

' Sec legend, Two Ijrothers wlio went to tlie sk\', p. 132. 


clear a fount of water. Then said the four, ' This is a i)lace of re- 
freshment.' One of the four drew a bottle from his bosom, so it 
seemed and it was, and dipped it in the spring. Then he said, ' You 
must partake first," and so he took it, but when he looked at it he 
thought it was not enough. So he said, ' I think that this is not 
sufficient.' And when he had said this the messengers looked at 
one another and smiled and one said, ' Truly it is enough. If it 
lacks, there is still the spring and the vessel may be refilled. So all 
took and drank and all the drink that all wished was in the bottle. 
Then said the messengers, ' This is a place of meeting. Now we 
will go on our journey.' " [There are also said to have been two 
other meeting places, Dioge"'djaie, Grassy Place, and Dion'dot, The 

So they said. Eniaiehuk. 


" So then they proceeded on their journey and had gone but a 
short way when they saw someone coming toward them and it was 
not long before they met. Then he saw it was a dog and when they 
met, the dog began to wag its tail and sprang upon him. Then he 
recognized the animal as his own dog and it appeared just as it had 
when he had decorated it for the sacrifice in tlie Madidji'yontwCis 
[New Year's ceremony]. Then said the four, ' Tliis thing attests to 
the value of our thankotiering to the Creator.' "^ 

So they said. Eniaiehuk. 


" So they took up their journey again and in a short time came 
to a halt. In the distance before them a man appeared to Ijc coming 
and soon he came nearer. Then he saw that the man was guiding 
two others, one on either side of him. Now as he looked he saw 
that one was the daughter of (iaiant'waka and it appeared that she 
was a large child. With her was his ( ( lanio'dai'io" ) own son, an 
infant, and they greeted one another, the son and the daughter. 
Now one could see that they were not strangers for they were 
friendly. Now moreover a fourth person was leading them all." 


" Now that person spoke and said, ' I brought them w itii me to 
testify to the truth that those of the lower world when they i)ass 
away come hither.' 

1 See p. 85, Sacrifice of the white dog. 


" Then spoke the daughter of Gaian'twaka, ' I send a message. 
It is this : It grieves me to know that my brothers on the earth dis- 
agree with my father. Bid them cease their disagreement.' So 
she said." 


.'SECTION 117 

" So they took up their journey again and in a short time care 
to a hah. There was a more brilhant hght and as they stood sud- 
denly they heard the echo of a commanding voice calhng the people 
together for the performance of the great feather dance. 

" Then asked the four messengers, ' What think you has hap- 
pened ? ' 

" He answered, ' I heard the commanding voice of Joi'ise calling 
the people to celebrate the great feather dance.' 

" Then replied the four messengers, ' Verily, Joi'ise, your friend 
is he who calls. He it was who was faithful and good and when 
he passed away in the lands of the Creator he continued as on the 
earth [to be a leader].' " 

So they said. Eniaiehuk. 


" So they took up their journey again and after a ways the four 
messengers said, ' We have arrived at the point where you must 
return. Here there is a house prepared for your eternal abode but 
should you now enter a room you. could never go back to the earth- 
world.' " 

So they said. Eniaiehuk. 


" Now when he arrived in Tonawanda having come from 
Diono"''sadege he was reluctant in performing his religious duties." 


" Now he was at Cornplantcr ten years, at Cold Spring two years 
and at Tonawanda four years. From there he went to Canonk- 
tivuk'gcg;u). ( )n()iidaga, and there fell our head man." 


" Now it ha])]'ened that while he still abode at Tonawanda an in- 
vitation was extended by the people of Onondaga asking bin t<> 
come and preach (iai'wiio' to tlie chiefs and head men there." 


SECTION 122 ' ' ' 

" Now it happened that the four messengers ai)peared to him 
when the invitation was extended, they the four speakers and mes- 
sengers of the Great Spirit of the worlds. 

" Now the first words that they spoke were these, ' They liave 
stretched out their hands pleading for you to come and tliey are 
your own people at Onondaga. Let this he the way, prejxire your- 
self and cleanse your bod}- with medicine.' It is necessar\- moreover 
for you to secrete yourself in some hidden spot and await our 
call to start.' " 

So they said. Eniaiehuk. 


" Now there will be another and his name will he the New 
Voice, Hawenose''. 

" So now it was that Ganio'dai'io' was luddcn the third lime to 
sing his song and this the messengers said would be the last. 

" Now then he said, ' There is nothing to incuml)er me from ful- 
filling my call.' " 

So said our head man. Eniaiehuk. 


" Thus it happened in the past and it is the truth. 

" ' I must now take up my final journey to the new world,' he 
thought, and he was greatly troubled and longed for the home of his 
childhood and pined to return. 

1 Purification. The herb used most extensive]}' by the Iroquois for "purifi- 
cation " was witch hopple, the liark of which was used both as an emetic 
and a purgative. For an emetic the bark was peeled upward and for a 
purgative downward. 

Early in the spring during the spell of warm days the people would 
take their kettles, jars of soup and deerskins and go alone into the woods 
for their ceremony of purification. Here they would scrape the bark, build 
a fire and make a strong infusion of the witch hopple bark. The drink 
was taken in large quantities and then the Indian would sit wrapped in his 
deerskin to await the results. From sunrise to sunset the drink would be 
taken until the alimentary tract was completely emptied. Toward sundown 
a little soup would be sipped to ward off excessive weakness, and give 
strength to return home. The next morning sweat baths were often taken, 
though not always, and then solid food was eaten. This process was thougiit 
to purify the body and without doubt did much to do so. Besides the 
customary spring purification others were sometimes ordered for disease 
and for preparations for ordeals, tests and ceremonial purposes. The 
process was again repeated in the autumn. 


" Then came the four messengers to him and said, ' The children 
will comfort you in your distress for they are without sin. They 
will elect a certain one from among them to plead that you continue 
to ahide among them.' " 

So they said. Eniaiehuk. 

" Now it happened that it came to pass that all the children as- 
sembled and their spokesman did his utmost to exact a promise 
from Ganio'dai'io'. So great was his grief that after he had spoken 
a short time he could no longer plead. Then another boy was 
appointed by the children, a boy not bashful but rough and bold. 
So he, too, endeavored to persviade Ganio'dai'io', but it was a difficult 
task for him and lie could scarcely speak, but he did. Then 
Ganio'dai'io' made an answer to the children. He rose and exhorted 
them to ever be faithful and a great multitude heard him and wept.'' 


" Now at this time there was a man and his name was New \"oice, 
a chief of equal rank with Cornplanter. Now this man urged 
Ganio'dai'io' to accept the invitation of his friends and relatives of 
Onondaga. He said, 'It is as if they were stretching forth their 
necks to see you coming. Now I am going forth to a gathering of 
chiefs at Bufifalo on the long strip that is the fireplace of the Six 
Nations,^ the great meeting place of human creatures. I will go 
so that I may believe that you are on your journey and I will ride 
away as fast as my horse can go.' So he said." 


" Now then Ganio'dai'io' started on his journey and a large num- 
ber followed him that they might hear him speak. They had no 
conveyances but traveled afoot. 

" Now when they came to their camping spot at Ganowa'ges,- he 
said to them in a commanding voice, 'Assemble early in the morn- 
ing.' Now when they did he offered thanks and afterward he said, 
' I have had a dream, a wondrous vision. I seemed to see a path- 
way, a trail overgrown and covered with grass so that it appeared 
not to have been traveled in a long time.' Now no one spoke but 

'At this time there was an Onondaga village on the Buffalo Creek tract. 
It became therefore a legal meeting place for the Six Nations. The 
Canadian refugees often returned to council there. 

2 The site of the village opposite the present Avon, N. Y. 


when all had heard and he had finished they dispersed and they con- 
tinued on their journey." 


" Now their next camping spot was near Ganundase"ge'.^ 
" Now when they had all come up to the spot he called out in a 
commanding voice, ' Come hither and give thanks.' Now when the 
ceremony was over he said, ' I heard in a dream a certain woman 
speaking but I am not able to say whether she was of Onondaga 
or of Tonawanda from whence we came.' So this was what he 
said when he related his dream. Then all the company dispersed." 


" So they proceeded on their journey. 

" Now it happened that when they were near the reservation line 
he said, ' Let us refresh ourselves before going farther.' So they 
sat down and ate and then they continued on their journey." 

" Now it happened that when they were over the reservation line 
that he said, ' I have forgotten my knife. I may have left it where 
we stopped and ate last. I can not lose that knife for it is one that 
I prize above many things. Therefore I must return and find it.' 

" The preacher went back alone and there was no one to go with 
him. Now he became very ill and it was with great difficulty that 
he returned. The others had all gone on to the council but he was 
not able to get to it for he was very sick and in great distress. So 
when he did not come it was said, ' Our meeting is only a gathering 
about the fireplace.' " Eniaiehuk. 


" Now it happened that they all wished to comfort him. So for 
his ])leasure they started a game of lacrosse" and played the game 
well. It was a l^right and beautiful day and they brought him out 
so that he might see the play. Soon he desired to be taken back 
into the house." Eniaiehuk. 


" Now shortly after he said a few words. To the numbers 
gathered about him to hear his inessage he said, ' I will soon go to 

1 The Seneca village near the present site of Geneva, N. Y. 

2 Games were often played to cheer and cure the sick. Special foods were 
given the players. 


my new home.^ Soon I will step into the new world for there is a 
plain pathway before me leading there. Whoever follows my teach- 
ings will follow in my footsteps and I will look back upon him with 
outstretched arms inviting him into the new world of our Creator. 
Alas, I fear that a pall of smoke will obscure the eyes of many from 
the truth of Gai'wiio' but I pray that when I am gone that all may 
do what I have taught.' 

" This is what he said. This is what (ianio'dai'io", our head man, 
said to his people." Eniaiehuk. 

[Then the preacher says:J "Relatives and friends: His term 
of ministry was sixteen years. So preached our head man, Ganio'- 

" Let this be our thanks to you and to the four messengers also. 
I give thanks to them for they are the messengers of our Creator. 
So, also, I give thanks to him whom we call Sedwagowane, our 
great tcaclier. So, also. I give thanks to our great Creator. 

" So have 1 said, I, Sosondowa (Great Night), the preacher." 
[Signed \ Edward Cornplanter, Sosondowa 

1 Handsome Lake died lo, 1815, at Onondaga. His last moments 
were spent in a small cabin near the creek that runs into Onondaga creek at 
the foot of the terrace. Three persons attended him and swore to keep all 
details secret. He is said to have died before his nepliew, Henry Obcal, 
could reach him. 




The midwinter festival of tlie Iroquois, commonly called Indian New 

Oil the third day of what tlie Seneca term Niskowukni ne''' 
Sade'gosha or the moon of midwinter, a council of head men is 
cahed and ofticers elected to officiate at the Gana'yasta' or midwinter 
thanksgiving ceremony to be held two days later. Officers are 
chosen from each of the two brotherhoods - of clans. 

On the first day of the ceremony officers called Ondeya, dressed 
in buffalo skins, meet and lay out a route of houses which each pair 
of Ondeya is to visit. This settled, they draw the buffalo heads over 
their heads and start out. 

There are three excursions of (3ndeya from their lodges, one at 

about 9 a. m., one at about 12 m. and one at about 3 p. lu. Two 

Ondeya, carrying corn pounders painted with red stripes, knock at 

the door of a house and entering intone : 

Hail, nephews. Now also the cousins with you. Now also you see the 
big heads. 

Ye he ! Gwiiwande ! 

One""diq wodewe'noye ne' ne'seso gwiiwande ! 

One""diq iswage"' noTwane' ! 

This is repeated and the Ondeya depart. 

At noon the Ondeya repair to their meeting place and emerging 

again go over the same route. Their message as they enter a lodge 

at this time is . 

Hail. Be clean I Do not be confused, O nephews. Do not tread upon 
things, nephews, cousins, when you move. 

Yehe ! lokweho"! siinon'di gwii'wandi ! danondnd.-ule, 

gwa wancii nenc seso nanondo yano 

At 3 p. m., returning to the saiue lodge, the message is: 

Yehe ! Oise"dase' susniun'nano ne" swaise'' dugayio' sa"do.' 
One" diq Ttchigaine'so" nongwuk'sado' nenwande' sii'no" diq 
itch'nonadokte' ongwukiido'. One" diq nekho" non'jiye. 

1 Taken at Newtown, Cattaraugus reservation, January 1905, by A. C. 

2 See Phratries. [81] 


After one has intoned this message or announcement the other 
pokes up the ashes with a basswood paddle and sings a song. 

The first day is spent in this way, formal announcements being 
given by the officers. 

On the morning of the second day all the lodges are visited by 
officers called Hadeiyayo'. Later, say 9 a. m., clan officers, known 
as Hana'sishe, begin their round of. visits. Two men and two 
women are chosen from the phratries and going in couples to the 
various houses conduct a thanks or praise service. The burden of 
tiieir words is a thanksgiving to God for the blessings that have 
been received by that house during the past year. 

When this ceremony is over these officers throw up a ])a(ldle 
(Wadigusa'wea) signifying that the ceremony is over. At this 
time a chief makes a long thanksgiving speech in the council house. 

At noon the " big feather " dancers visit every lodge and dance 
the sacred dance. Two women at least must participate. On enter- 
ing a lodge the leader of the feather dancers must say : 

Onc""'diq' hodo"issoin'yundc scdwa'a'wuk g;'io"'ya'ge' 
honon'ge". Nekho"nai' hodo'issho"go"oindi ne'' hawo"n'. 
Hodawisa'se' Osto'wagowa. 

One""diq'dji'wusno\vat nc" gissii" ayc"ongrwe' Osto'- 
wagowa. Gagwego",' one"" diq,' djiwusnowat heniyo"' 
swao'iwayando"' ! 

Da'neho" ! 

At al)Out 2 p. m. public dances begin in the " long house." 

The Society of Bears, which during the early afternoon had been 
holding a session in the house of some member, enter the long house 
and dance publicly. The same is true of the False Face Company. 

Other dances are the Pigeon song dance (Tca''kowa) and the 
Gada'ciot. The only dance in which physical contact is permitted 
is the Yendomssonta' or " dance of the beans." Dancers hold each 
other's hands as they circle around the singers. This is to repre- 
sent the bean vine as it clings to a sapling or corn stalk. 

On the morning of the third day the priest arises before daylight 
and standing at the door of the council house begins his song of 
thanks. The song is sung until dawn appears and then the priest 
ceases. Should a fierce wind be blowing it is believed that when 
the words of the song float upward the Great Spirit will say, 
" Cease your movements, Oh wind, I am listening to the song of 
my children." 



The first verse is as follows : 

One"" diq' okno'wi, One"" diq,' dasenni"dottonde 

Giio'ya giitci'ja'! Yoandja'ge ige"'s 

One"" diq' o'gai'wayi' one" 

Deawen'nisse nei'gowes 



One"" diq' wadi'wayeTs. 

The song begins with the singer's face 
to the west; he turns and sings in all direc- 
tions, that all may hear his voice. 

A legend relates that this song originated 
ages ago. An old woman is said to have 
been with child and before her son was 
born, from the heavens came this song. 

Only one or two Indians sing this now, 
no others being able for some reason. 
After the song the priest calls upon the 
Cireat Spirit in these words: 

Ye, ye-e, yee ! 

Dane"agwa none"ne"ga' ne'wa 
One"" diq dasa"tondat' gaoge'ge' 
tci 'ja", etc., etc. 

At about 9 a. m. another officer of re- 
ligion enters the long house and sings the 
Ganio'dai'io' song: 


Fig. I Prayer rattle made 
from a dried squasli. 
Allegany Seneca specimen. 

I love my world, I love my time, I love my growing 
children, I love my old people, I love my ceremonies 

At noon various societies and companies which have been hold- 
ing sessions in private lodges adjourn to the council house to en- 
gage in public cereiuonies. The great feather dance is celebrated 
at noon. Afterward nearly all the common dances are given, aiuong 
which is the woman's football game and dance. 

The morning of the third day is greeted as the previous day, by 
the song and prayer of the priest. 



At 9 a. m. of the fourth day the Gonio'dai'io' song is chanted 
again. IMeanwhile the company of harvest dancers hold their 
dances at private houses going to the long house (gano"'susge"') 
at noon. Soon after the Bird Society or Gane''gwae enters the 
council house and begins its dance. Two dancers are chosen from 
each phratry, as are also two speakers. The evening is devoted to 
the Trotting, Fish. Pigeon, Bear, False Face, Buffalo and other 
dances. At lo p. ni. the ceremonies cease. 

On the fifth day the dawn ceremony is repeated and at 9 a. m. 
the Ganio'dai'io" song is sung. Societies hold meetings in their own 


At about I J), m. a company of women dancers visit each house, 
dance and sing and return to the long house. False Face beggars 
also roam from lodge to lodge in search of sacred tobacco. In the 
afternoon and evening various dances are held in the long house. 
At about II p. m. the Husk Face Company enters the long house 
and engages in their public ceremony. After this dance the people 
are dismissed by a chief. 

Adoowab or Thanksgiving Mng 

Used 10 adoption ceremony t,„^„ ^ •„ «».,. e-ui. 

(A» sung by Chief Jo»tpb LyonJ o»o«t*f Cuttt.ttot 

wah wti wab 


Bo Be 

He B< H« 

B» a. 

i\, hUMt vhih h llMih^li rn p-nr-r ;'Ji> < f-MliUlUi^^r^ 

k« n 

• h> Y 

1 — 1 1 1 

ukw. , 

1 1 

u lr»i 


■-' — - - ■ yr t 

ke OM bM Yu Inra y 

"Ti — 1 — ri I 1 1 

u kwa 

■ ■" V- 

ke a 

1 1 

A ba 

1 M 1 

1 1 

u k>* 


ke ua hA 
-1 1 1 1 






IJ J u J 1^ 






1 J J 1 

\i^ i 7- III [0^^4f^J^nM-JHJUiJ.]l J'JU>7N J■n\f^^s^^ 

«r — 

ru k»« yu k>a br lu lu Yu k^-a yu k«a ke a 

1 1 1 1 f-H — 1 IJ J M J 11 

1 ha 

Yu k«m yu kn 

- 1 ' =i 


J d \ J d \ d d- i d d LA d 1 d 

d 1 

1 J 

The n orning of the sixth day is devoted to the dog sacrifice and 
the tobacco ofifering. Afterward the Ado"'we' are sung. This song 
may be translated : 1 am now going home, I step upon another 


world, I turn and extend my arms for a friend to lead me, I pray 
all may go where I go. Now the earth is smoky and none can see 
the other world [as I doj. 

On the seventh day the Honon'diont hold a morning dance and 
then proceed to cook the feast. Costumed feather dancers enter 
the long house and dance. The " wind is open for names," or 
opportunity is now given to bestow names. At this ])oint if a boy 
is to be named the priest rises and says. " Hio'gene"', dji'waga ne-e ! " 

■' Hu'', hu"', hu''hu''-a! " respond the people. 

If a girl is to be named there is no ceremony other than the mere 
announcement of the name. A speech is now made by a chief 
bidding people make ready for the sacred bowl game. 

Honon'diont visit each lodge exacting from every person stakes 
for the sacred gamble. Each phratry is to play against the other 
The Honon'diont then meet and matcli articles, value for value. 

The night previous every i)erson endeavors to have a prophetic 
dream, whereby they may know the result of this game. No one 
must cheat in this game for " it is God's." 

The great feather dance is repeated and names bestowed on this 
tlay. At night the Husk Faces return and give a grand final dance. 

The ninth day is the last one of the midwinter's ceremony. Early 
in the morning the priest gives a thanksgiving " sermon." At 
5 p. m. occurs the dance in honor of the " three sisters," Diohe''ko, 
(these-we-live-on ). Afterward the woman's dance is held, alter- 
nating with the following men's dances. Trotting, Pumpkin, Pigeon 
and Beans. The feast is then distributed and the people disperse. 


A preliminary translation of the ceremonial jirayer at the burn- 
ing of the white dog at the Seneca Indian new year's ceremony 

Wotokwaiiendakwa Gaiantguntgwaa 

( wotok'waiien'dakwa gaiaht'guntgwa') 

Gwa ! Gwa ! (jwa ! 

So now this is the appointed time! 

Oh listen, you who dwell in the sky ! 

1 Recorded February KyoCi, at Cattaraugus reservation. 


Our words are straight — 

Only these can we speak unto you, 

Oh you from whom we are descended, 

Oh you who dwell in the sky ! 

You look down upon us and know that we are all children. 

Now we petition you as we burn this sacred tobacco! 

Now we commence our invocation, 

Now we speak of all that you have created. 

Now I in the beginning] you did think that men-beings should in- 
herit the blessings of your creations, 

For you did say, '' Earth was my birthplace ! " 

Now we have spoken in this incense [throws tobacco upon the 

Oh now inhale the smoke, so listen to our words. 

Now we commence, we are all that remain upon the earth. 

You behold the places that once were filled but now are empty ; 

We were unable to change it for you made the law. 

Now you think that there should be two conditions of temperature 
upon the earth ; 

One you thought should be cold and one should be warm 

And when the warm season came that Diohe''ko, our substance, 
should spring from the bosom of Earth, our mother. 

Now we have harvested the Diohe"'ko from whence our living is 

For the warm season has gone and we have here assembled. 

Now we have made inquiries among all the people and they remem- 
ber their promises. 

For they promised you that they should assemble again at Gaiwan- 
os'kwa gowa' 

On the fifth sun of the moon Niskowuk'ni. 

So all fulfilled the plan and gathered together in the moon Nis'a, 
even those here present, 

Oh vou who were born of Earth, yet dwell in the sky! 

Now all have fulfilled the law, for you did plan that the rites should 
be per])etuated even forever. 

Now we are conuucnciiig, ( )h you who were born of I'larth ! 

Upon the first day the (Ireat Feather dance went through the 
village for your ])leasure. 

The honon'diont and their cousins did their full duty. 

Now on the next day Ganeo' was celebrated ; at midday they went 
through the village. 


And you did give us great joy because we performed this ceremony 
For you did think that ( ianeo' shouhl be celebrated U])on the earth 

for thine own self. 
Thus did we fulfil your desires, Oh you who were born of hiarth, 

yet live in the sky ! 
Now on the next day Gagandot was played. 
Truly we did fulfil your desires, 

Oh you who were born of Earth, you who live in the sky ! 
You did see all that was done. 

Oh you who were born of Earth, you wlio li\e in the sky! 
In the beginning you thought that you would lay this sacred tobacco 

by man's side 
That men should have an incense with which to send his words up 

to the sky. 
With which to lift his words when the year ended. 
Truly we have fulfilled your desires and here we have that l)asket 

of sacred tobacco. 
Oh you who were born of Earth, you who dwell in the sky! 
I Throws tobacco on the flames.] 
So now the smoke arises ! 
Oh inhale the incense as you listen ! 

For now do we commence to speak of what you have created. 
In the beginning you thought that there should be a world 
Upon which men beings should travel 
That you might say, " They are my descendants." 
Now there is a shaft that reaches up to you, (laneowi, the sacred 

song of the morning it is. 
Now of your descendants as many as remain are gathered here. 
Now you thought that there should be two sexes of men-beings. 
That one should l)e the male antl one should be the female. 
And the function of the female should be the rearing of children. 
I'ruly the females are fulfilling the design of their creation 
For in their arms we see their children. 
Truly it is in progress what you planned for them. 
Now the smoke arises ! 
So now inhale this sacred incense! 

Now we petition you that this thing should continue so henceforth. 
And shall continue as long as the earth endures. 
Now you thought that there should be a world 
Upon which grasses of difi^erent kinds should grow 


And that some should be medicinal, 

And that some should yield fruits for a help to the men-beings 

who dwell upon the earth. 
Thus did you think, O you who dwell in the sky ! 
Now it was ordered to be so when the warm season warmed the 

And that it should be fulfilled them and that your descendants 

should see the return of things. 
Now again the smoke arises 
And the people speak through it to you, 
Oh you who dwell in the sky ! 
Now we implore you that it may so occur again when the earth 

That your desires may be fulfilled and that your descendants ma) 

again see your creations. 
Now again the smoke arises 
And the people speak through it to you, 
Oh you who dwell in the sky 
Yet were born of Earth ! 

Now' our sustenance you thought should be placed beside us, 
And that men-l)eings should labor for their living. 
These plans are all in progress 
All see from whence their living comes. 

Now we implore you that when the earth warms again that sus- 
taining food may grow. 
This we ask by the power of the incense tobacco, 
( )h inhale it and listen to us, 
Oh you, our great ancestor, 
You Avho dwell in the sky ! 

You thought that there should be veins and that there should l)c 

fountains of water : 
Now this thought is made a fact and is occurring 
So we ask that this shall continue. 
Now again the smoke arises 
To you the father of all men-beings. 
To you who dwell in the sky ! 

Now you thought that there should be living creatures, 
Inhabiting the waters, useful to the people. 

The code of handsome lake 89 

Now your thoughts have hai)pened and we implore you that it may 

not be withdrawn, 
Oh you who were born of hearth, 
Oh you who dwell in tlie sky ! 
But may continue as long as earth endures. 

So now another. 

You did think that there should be world 

And that bushes should grow upon it for a help to tlie people, 
That the bushes should yield various fruits for the benefit of men- 
( )h you who were born of luirth. 
Oh you who dwell in the sky, 
Ma}' this continue as long as earth endures! 

Now again the smoke arises, 

Oh inhale the incense and continue to listen 

Oh you who were born of F.arth 

( )h vou who dwell in the sky ! 

So now another. 

Now you did think that there should be forests ujion the earth 

And that they might be a helj) to the people. 

So now moreover you did think that there should be a certain tree 

That should yield sweet water from its trunk. 

Now that tree is the ]Ma])le and it is faithful to its design 

May this continue to be, 

( )h \'ou who dwell in the sky ! 

Now again the smoke arises. 

And the people pray that this may still continue when the earth 

becomes warm again ! 
So now this thing is done. 

Our words are as straight as we could make them. 
Only this can we do for we are all young 
Oh you who were born of h^.arth, 
( )h you who dwell in the sky ! 
So now this one thing ends. 

So now another. 

You have createtl wild animals that roam in the forests, 

You did think that they would be a pleasure to men-beings 


Who should remember and say, " We are his descendants." 
Now may they continue so to be, 
Oh you who were born of Earth, 
Oh you who dwell in the sky! 

So now another. 

The people are speaking; 

They are continuing from the commencement of creation 

Discussing those things that you didst think would be a benefit to 

Oh you who were born of Earth. 
Oh you who dwell in the sky ! 

Now the birds that inhabit the air, 

Birds from the low world to the great birds, 

Birds that float above the clouds. 

All these you did think would be a benefit to mankind. 

Oh you who w^ere born of Earth, 

Oh you who dwell in the sky ! 

Now we ask that this thought should be forever 

Even as long as earth endures. 

Now again the smoke arises, 

Continue to listen as you inhale this incense, 

For we are discussing the things of your creation 

That you did think should be a benefit to mankind, 

Oh you who were born of Earth, 

Oh you who dwell in the sky ! 

Now you did think that there should be a world and that it should 

become cold. 
At a recurring season become cold again. 
Now we implore thee that it should not be too great a cold 
And likewise when the earth becomes warm again, 
That the heat should be moderate and comfortable. 
Now again the smoke arises 
To you who were born of E.arth, 
To you who dwell in the sky ! 

So now another. 

Continue to listen ! 

You did think that there should be a wind 

And that it should be a help to the world. 


\\ Now the wind is here. 
And the people pray that it may continue to be so as long as earth 

Now again the smoke arises 

To you who were born of Earth, 

To you who dwell in the sky ! 

Now they came from the west. 

Ti'sot we call them, 

Our great grandfathers the Thunderers ; 

You did make them our relatives. 

They were placed in a high position 

That they might care for the earth 

And feed the waters that flow over the world and purify them, 

And freshen all things that grow. 

A certain season was appointed for their activity 

The season when the earth commences to become warm again. 

Now again the smoke arises, 

It lifts our words to you, 

Oh inhale the incense and continue to listen, 

Oh you who were born of Earth, 

Oh you who dwell in the sky ! 

Now the whole world prays that you will listen. 

May all these things continue as long as earth endures, 

Oh you who were born of Earth, 

Oh you who dwell in the sky ! 

So now again another. 

You did think that there should be a sky 

And that within it should be something to illuminate the world, 

Ende'ka gaa''kwa, our great brother, the mighty warrior, the Sun, 

And that so it should be called so. 

He has a high position that shall last as long as earth endures. 

Now again the smoke arises and so smoke tobacco as you listen, 

Oh you who were born of Earth, 

Oh you who dwell in the sky ! 

Now the people of all earth with one voice implore you 

That your plan may be carried out and continue as long as earth 

So do your descendants pray. 


So now another. 

It is of Soi'ka gaa"k\va, our grandmother, the Moon in the sky. 

You did make her a sign for reckoning the years of children. 

Now she has fulfilled the design of her creation so far. 

Now again the smoke arises. 

Inhale the incense as you continue to listen, 

Oh you who were horn of Earth, 

Oh you who dwell in the sky! 

Through the smoke we pray that this may be so as long as earth 

So pray your descendants. 
Oh you who were born of Earth, 
Oh you who dwell in the sky ! 
So have they said. 
Oh you who were born of E.arth, 
Oh you who dwell in the sky! 

Now you did think that there should be a sky 

And that sj^ots should be in the sky 

For signs unto the people. 

So did you design this to be so as long as the earth endures. 

And the people implore thee that this may continue to be as long 

as the earth endures. 
Now again the smoke arises. 
And through it the people speak. 
Oh inhale as you continue to listen. 
Oh you who were born of Earth, 
Oh you who dwell in the sky ! 

Now you did design all that which should occur in the world. 
And planned the four sacred ceremonies 
That should be perpetuated forever 
And celebrated by the people each year. 

Be celebrated by these who call themselves your descendants ; 
Hiat there should be head ones and their assistants 
To perpetuate the four ceremonies. 
Now as many men-beings as remain on earth are here, 
Gathered about this pole. 
Now then you have seen that we commenced at the new part of 

Now you shall know that you are invited to listen to thanking 

songs this day ! 

I The head chief yells Yokadi! rjowagannie! 
The people answer wo' wo' wo'!] 


Now tomorrow morning you must consider yourself invited to the 
Great Feather Dance ! 

[Cries by the head chief Hioh. hiu. hiu, hiu! 
The people answer lo' io' io' io' io'!] 

Two parts will be celebrated, the Great Feather Dance and the 
Harvest Thanksgiving. 

[Cries by the head chief Ganio'ganio ganio! 
Answers by the the people Ho-ni ho-ni!] 

These two ceremonies will be in progress tomorrow, 

Oh you who were born of Earth, 

Oh you who dwell in the sky 

And the next day you are invited to the sacred ganc. 

[Cries by the head chief, Ba-a'! ba-a'! ba-a'! ba-a'! ba-a'! 
Answers by the people. Hole! hoie! hole! hole!) 

Now again the smoke arises 

The incense of the sacred tobacco. 

To you who were born of Earth, 

Yet dwell in the sky 

Only this can we do 

To fulfil the law. 

All the things of your creation that you have made visiljle to us 

We thank you for and for all the things that you have created. 

In the manner that you did think, we have thanked you. 

From low earth upward to the great sky where you are living. 

With all their strength the people thank you and you have seen it, 

Oh you who were born of Earth, 

Oh you who dwell in the sky ! 

So now it is done. 

Now you did think that you would appoint four messengers whose 

work should be to watch over earth 
And the people that dwell in the world 
To keep them all from harm. 
For men-beings are your children. 

Now do I say, tiie voices of the people combine as one 
To thank you. 
We have done as best we can in giving thanks to the four 

Now again the smoke arises, 
And we speak through its incense. 
Inhale the smoke as you do listen. 
Oh the great Handsome i-ake ! 


We believe that he is happy in the place that you have prepared 

for him. 
Moreover we thank him. 
Oh you who were born of Earth, 
Oh you who dwell in the sky ! 
Now only this can we do. 
You thought that it should be this way, 
Oh you that were born of Earth, 
Oh you who dwell in the sky ! 
Now we thank you, the Creator of the World. 
Here are gathered so many people as remain, 
Few head men remain. 
Only til is can we do. 
And they say how the people should act. 
Of the head men and their cousins only so many are left, 
[But they with | the men and the women 
The children that run and the children that creep 
As one man-being offer you thanks. 
They are your descendants. 
Oh you who dwell in the sky ! 
Now you did think that we should offer you tobacco when we 

addressed you. 
And we have fulfilled your request and used tobacco. 
We leave our words with you until the next great thanksgiving, 
Lentil then may the people continue in health. 
Now the smoke arises ! 
Oh inhale as you do listen ! 
Only this can we do 
For all the words are spoken 
To you, our great ancestor, 
Oh you who dwell in the sky. 
Oh you who were born of Earth ! 

NE ganeowqI 

One of the four sacred ceremonies of the Seneca 
The Gane'o"wo" is a ceremonial thanksgiving in which two 
'■ l)reachers," standing on either side of a long bench around which 
a co'.rpany of religious dancers have arranged themselves, al- 
ternately intone sections of the Gane'o"wo" ritual. At the end of 

1 Ne"gane'o"\vo", recorded and translated at Newtown, Cattaraugus reser- 
vation, January 1906. 


each section the speaker starts a chant which is taken up by the 
singers who sit on the benches. A drummer keeps time by beating 
a water drum and the dancers gracefully circle around the benches. 
The direction of this dance, as all Iroquois dances, is counterclock- 
wise. When the chant and dance have continued a period deemed 
sufficient by the opposite speaker, he halts the singing and dancing 
by the exclamation " (iwi''y;V ! '" and then commences his in- 

The writer had recorded the entire Gane'o"wo" ritual, speeches 
and songs, on a set of phonograph records, especially for preserva- 
tion by the New York State Education Department. Unfortunately 
these perished in the Capitol fire of March 29, 191 1. About icx) 
other ceremonial records on wax cylinders were also destroyed at 
that time. 

[preliminary] translation of the ganeowo ritual of the 


I Gwi''ya' ! 

Now the whole assemblage is offering thanks ! 

This day [there] is occurring what the Creator has made 

pleasing for his own self. 
We are thankful that what he has made for himself is 

[Singing and dancing]. 

II Gwi"ya' ! [Singing and dancing stop]. 

Now the whole assemblage is offering thanks ! 

The Creator thought that there should be men-beings, 

And he thought that there should be chiefs to regulate the 

actions of these men-beings. 
So now we thank him that what he thought has come to 

[Singing and dancing are resumed]. 

Ill Gwi''ya' ! [Singing and dancing stop]. 

Now the whole assemblage is offering thanks ! 

Now he thought that there should be two sexes, 

That one should be the female 

That children might grow from her. 

We thank the women that they are doing their duty in 

fulfilling the design of their creation. 
[Singing and dancing resumed]. 


IV Gwi''ya" ! [Singing and dancing stop]. 

Now the whole asseml)lage is offering thanks ! 

He thought that there should he a difference \\\ the length 

of lives, 
And that children should run about and some creep. 
So this is what he has done. 
We are thankful that this is fulfilled. 
[Singing and dancing resumed]. 

\' Gwi''ya" ! [Singing and dancing stop]. 

Now the whole assemblage is offering thanks ! 

He thought that certain ones should be the leaders of the 

The same for both male and female, to preserve the four 

So we thank these head ones that they are dutiful to the 

calling of their Creator. 
[Singing and dancing resumed]. 

AT Gwi'^yaT [Singing and dancing stop]. 

Now the whole assemblage is offering thanks! 

He thought that there should be a world and that peojile 

should be upon the world, 
That they should draw their sustenance from tlie world. 
So we thank the Creator that what he thought has come 

to pass. 
[Singing and dancing resumed]. 

\TI Gwi''ya' ! [Singing and dancing stop]. 

Now the whole assemblage is offering thanks ! 

He thought that there should be things in the world for 

And that people should labor for their sustenance. 
Now we petition the Creator that we may again see the 

season of things growing from which our living is. 
[Singing and dancing resumed]. 

Vni Gwi'^ya' ! | Singing and dancing stop]. 

Now the whole assemblage is offering thanks ! 
He thought that there should be herbs of dift'erent kinds 
And that these should grow when the earth is warm 
And that these herbs should be a help to the people when 
medicine was needed. 


So we thank the Creator that what he thought is now 

I Singing and dancing resumed]. 

IX G\vi''ya'! [Singing and dancing stop]. 

Now the whole assemljhige is offering thanks! 

He thought that there should he two different varieties of 

trees and that one should yield fruit. 
Now the first fruit of the year is the strawberry 
And he thought that when the strawberries are ripe his 

creatures should thank him. 
Thank him in a great feast and dance ceremony. 
Now I ask that the time of strawberries may return again. 
[Singing and dancing resumed]. 

X Gwi''ya' ! | Singing and dancing stop|. 
Now the whole assemblage oft'ers thanks ! 
He thought that there should be trees for a help to the 

people of earth. 
So now we thank the Creator because what he thought is 

fulfilled and is a help to the peo|)le. 
I Singing and dancing resumed]. 

XI Gwi''ya'! [Singing and dancing stop]. 

Now the whole assemblage offers thanks! 

He thought that there should be a certain tree to bear 

So we are thankful that all things are that he has or- 

And shall be as long as the world endures. 

I Singing and dancing resumed]. 

XII Gwi''ya" ! [Singing and dancing stop]. 

Now the whole assemblage is offering thanks ! 

He thought that there should be forests upon the earth 

That these should be a help to the people of earth. 

So we thank the Creator that what he thought has come to 

[Singing and dancing resumed]. 

XIII Gwi"'ya" ! [Singing and dancing stop]. 

Now the whole assemblage is offering thanks ! 
He thought that there should l)e a certain tree 


From which sweet waters should flow when the earth 

That this tree should l)e the mafile and that men-beings 

should tap it, 
And that this should he a help to the people. 
So we thank the Creator that what he thought is occurring. 
[Singing and dancing resumed]. 

XIV Gwi''ya' ! [Singing and dancing stop]. 

Now the entire assemblage is ottering thanks ! 

He thought that there should be a certain tree to yield 

So we are thankful that what he thought is so. 
[Singing and dancing resumed]. 

XV Gwi"ya' ! [vSinging and dancing stop]. 

Now the whole assemblage is offering thanks ! 

He thought that he would create wild beasts 

And that men-beings should derive benefits from them. 

So we thank the Creator that they are [yet] for our help. 

[Singing and dancing resumed]. 

X\T Gwi''ya" ! [Singing and dancing stop]. 

Now the whole assemblage is otTering thanks ! 

He thought that there should be certain ones who should 

be his servants, 
And that they should come from the west and care for 

the world, 
That they should cause the earth to become wet 
Thereby feeding the springs and waters that flow 
Moreover that they should be called Hadiwennoda'die's, 

the Thunderers. 
So we thank the Creator that they ha\e always fulfilled 

the purpose of their creation. 
Now we put everything together and say 
We are thankful that all things are doing that for which 

they were created. 
[Singing and dancing resumed]. 

XVn Gwi''ya'! [Singing and dancing stop]. 

Now the whole assemblage is ofl^ering thanks ! 
He thought that there should be a sky over head ; 
He thought that there should be stars in that sky 


That the men-beings that he put upon the earth might be 

guided thereby ; 
That certain stars should guide the people. 
So we thank the Creator that what he thought is so. 
[Singing and dancing resumed]. 

K^VIII Gwi''ya'! [Singing and dancing stopj. 

Now the whole assemblage is offering thanks! 
Now he thought that there should be a certain one in the 

And that he should give light a certain period of time 
And that they should call him "our brother, ende'- 

ka ga'akwa','" 
Now, as we are all gathered together, we thank the sun 

that he is eternally dutiful. 
[Singing and dancing resumed]. 

TX Gwi''ya'! [Singing and dancing stop]. 

Now the whole assemblage is offering thanks ! 

He thought that there should be another in the heavens 

Who should reveal itself when the sun went under 

And that people should callit akso'ot, our grandmother, 

Now, as we are all gathered together, we thank the moon 

that she is eternally dutiful. 
[Singing and dancing resumed | . 

XX Gwi''ya'! [Singing and dancing stop]. 

Now the whole assemblage is ottering thanks ! 

He thought that there must be a certain one who should 

reveal what he thought. 
He thought that he should lay the Gai'wiio' before the 

So he revealed the Gai'wiio' to Ganio'dai'io' 
And he did his duty as the Creator had ordained, 
He preached and taught until he died. 
So we all render our thanks for he has done his duly 
For we now follow in the way he taught 
And we will remember forever. 
[Singing and dancing resumed]. 

XXI Gwi''ya'! [Singing and dancing stop]. 

Now the whole assemblage is offering thanks! 


He thought that he should have four beings for his mes- 

Who should watch over the people of earth and that on 
their strength their living should be. 

Now we thank the four messengers that they are faithful 
to the design of their creation. 

[Singing and dancing resumedj. 

XXII Gwi''ya'! [Singing and dancing stop]. 

Now the whole assemblage is offering thanks! 

He thought that the people should commence with the 

lower earth to thank him 
For all that he had created and should offer thanks fui 

things from below up to himself in the high world. 
We therefore, gathered together in this assemblage, thank 

our Creator, 
Yea all of his creatures who are living in this world. 
[Singing and dancing resumed]. 

XXIII Gwi"ya'! [Singing and dancing stop]. 
Now all the people offer thanks ! 
He thought that there should be certain persons to sin; 

for the dances he had made. 
Now you who have sung and are singing, we thank you. 
[Singing and dancing resumed]. 
[Speaker exhorts all the people to join in the dance]. 





1 Opening address by a chief 

2 A Thanksgiving speech 

3 Ne"aska'nie', the women's dance 

4 Ne''ga'da'ciot, the jubilee dance 

5 Ne'^gusshedon'dada", the jug shaking dance 

6 Ne''askan'ie', the women's dance 

7 Ne"yiendonesshonta', the old women's song 

8 Ne"aska'nie', the women's dance 

9 Ne"gaianon'gayo°ka 

10 Ne''osto'wago'wa, the great feather dance 

11 Closing address 

12 Distribution of the feast 

The object of the Cornplanting ceremony is to secure divine 
favor and help in the spring planting. Everyone is invoked to till 
the ground and earn the bread they eat. The ceremony lasts about 
four or five hours. 


A council is called to set the time for this festival which has no 
exact day but varies according to the weather. However, it takes 
place soon after the sap commences to run. Its object is to thank 
all trees for their services to man and invoke their protection and 
good will for the coming year. 

Outline program 

. I The address to the maple tree. A fire is built at the foot of a 
large maple tree. The people gather around and a special officer 
advances with a basket of tobacco which he sprinkles on the fire 
as he recites the address to the maple : 

Ne' no"ga' giigwa'ani saiwisa'ane gani'se swen'iio' 
Seane ganiga'o ne"niganigai'isek 
One" diq' oyan'kwa(owe)so!'ye' 
Negihedahadondi gaiyehonoshas henizaiwissaho"' 
One"" diq' kejedai' songwani, etc. 


The prayer at the maple festival 

\Va''da Tadinion'nio'o' 
A] aple Thanksgiving 

Es"\vaiyTg\va'sho\vi ne'' odeha'donni. Ne"wainnondoi'shonk 

Oh partake of this tobacco the forests. This we petition 

nega'doga nayut'dao" njietgone'igais nawa''da 
may you continue the production of sweet water Oh maple 
Hawe'o" Nawenniio' e"gao"dadegao" e"gani'gaiksek 
The will of the Creator that a certain tree water flows from 
Ne''ne"ga' e"ga'ohk hadieo"sha deod()"o" ne'' he''hadiduk'keno"dies 
This it may not accidents occur the running about 
hadiksa'sho°'o' gahadegon"sho° 
the children in the woods. 

Xe"' ne"ga'' wanTshade" Is' esswai'ya'dagwani'yothet 

Xow this day you it belongs to you to enjoy 

ue"ga'' wamshiide'. 
this day. 

JJjasayawa'goduk liawen'iio' cia''dade giloya'ge'tciojo''. 

We give thanks oh (lod to you the dweller of the heavens. 

Agwai'wayiis ne''gaiyiwanda'kho. 

We have done it what devolved upon us. 

Osut'gat'ho djogwutgwc'uio'. 

You have seen what we have done. 


So, it is. 

llie address to the maple, the chief of trees and the prayer to the' 


A Seneca ceremony 

The priest stands at the roots of a maple. A fire is burning and 
the priest casts tobacco in the fire and as its smoke arises he says : 

To the tree : 

" O partake of this incense, 
You the forests ! 
We implore you 
To continue as before. 
The flowing waters of the maple. 


To the Creator and the tree : 

It is the will of the Creator 

That a certain tree 

Should flow such water. 

Now may no accidents occur 

To children roaming in the forests. 

Now this day is yours 

May you enjoy it, — this day. 

To the Creator : 

We give thanks, oh ( iod, to you, 
You who dwell in licavcn. 
We have done our duly 
You have seen us do it. 
So it is done." 


I Da'nondinoimio'' hMe'kwa gaa'kwa', the Sun Dance. 

II Da'nondinonnio'' Soi'ka gaa'kwa', the Moon Dance. 

III Wasaze/ the Thunder Dance. 


1 Da'nondinonnio'' Ende'ka g;i;i'kwa', tlie .Sun dance, is designed 
to honor the sun. 

2 This ceremony has no certain time for its celebration ])ul may 
be called by anyone, at any time, wIkj dreams it necessary for the 
welfare of the settlement. 

3 The ceremony begins at noon wlicn arrows are shot uj) toward 
the sun while the populace shout their war cries. 

4 A fire is built outside and toljacco is thrown l)y a priest who 
chants the sun-rite. 

5 Three times during this ceremony a shower of arrows are 
shot up to the sun accompanied by a chorus of cries, intended to 
notify him that they are addressing him. 

6 Immediately afterward the Osto'wagowa is engaged in as the 
only fitting dance to perform before the mighty Sun. 


I Da'nondinonnio" Soikagaa'kwa', the Moon Dance ceremony. 
is convened by anyone who dreams it necessary or by the advice of 
a clairvoyant. 

^ Meaning, Dakota, or Sioux. 


2 A thanksgiving speech is recited by a chief while he burns the 
tobacco offering to the moon. 

3 As the peach stone gambhng game is thought especially pleas- 
ing to the moon, the conij^any gambles away the evening. 

4 The distribution of the feast terminates the ceremony. 


1 Wasaze, the Thunder Dance, is one designed to please the 
spirit of Thunder, Hi'^no". 

2 A council is called when the first thunder of the year is heard 
and a time as immediate as possible set for the Wasaze. 

3 The dancers assemble without the council house, an opening 
address is made by a priest or chief and the dance immediately 

4 The line of dancers dance into the long house. 

5 Hi"no" is supposed to delight in war songs and these are sung 
to please him. 

6 Tobacco is burned and a thanksgiving speech made to Hi''no", 
for his services in the past and he is prayed to continue his favors. 



When the world was first made, men-beings did not know that 
they must die some time. In those days everyone was happy and 
neither men, women nor children were afraid of anything. They 
did not think of anything but doing what pleased them. At one 
time, in those days, a prominent man was found on the grass. He 
was limp and had no breath. He did not breathe. The men-beings 
that saw him did not know what had happened. The man was not 
asleep because he did not awaken. When they placed him on his 
feet he fell like a tanned skin. He was limp. They tried many 
days to make him stand but he would not. After a number of days 
he became offensive. 

A female man-being said that the man must be wrapped up and 
put in the limbs of a tree. So the men did so and after a while the 
flesh dropped from the bones and some dried on. No one knew 
what had happened to cause such a thing. 

Soon afterward a child was found in the same condition. It had 
no breath. It could not stand. It was not asleep, so they said. 
The men-beings thought it was strange that a girl man-beinc: should 
act this wise. So she was laid in a tree. Now manv others did 
these things and no one knew why. No one thought that be him- 
self would do such a thing. 

There was one wise man who thought much about these thing'^ 
and he had a dream. When he slept the Good Minded spirit came 
to him and spoke. He slept a long time but the other men-beings 
noticed that he breathed slowly. He breathed [nevertheless]. 
Now after a tiiue this man rose up and his face was verv solemn. 
He called the people together in a council and addressed the people. 
The head men all sat around with the people. 

The wise man spoke and he said, " The Good Minded spirit made 
every good thing and prepared the earth for men-beings. Now it 
appears that strange events have happened. A good word has 
come to me from the Good Minded spirit. He says that every 
person must do as you have seen the other persons do. They have 
died. Thev do not breathe. It will be the same with all of you. 
Your minds are strong. The Good Minded spirit made them that 
wav so that vou could endure everything that happened. So then 
do not be downcast when I tell vou that vou all must die. Listen 

1 Related by Edward Cornplanter, March 1906. 


further to what I say. The name of the one that steals away your 
breath is S'hondowek'owa. He has no face and does not see any 
one. You can not see him until he gras])s you. He comes some- 
times for a visit and sometimes he stays with us until many are 
dead. Sometimes he takes away the best men and women and 
passes by the lesser ones. I was not told why he does this thini;. 
He wants to destroy every person. He will continue to work fo' 
ever. Every one who hears me and every one not yet born wi! 
die. There is more about you than living. Any moment vou may 1 
snatched by S'hondowek'owa, he who works in the thick darkne> 
You must now divide yourselves into nine bands, five to sit n; 
one side of the fire and four on the other and these bands shall 
care for its members. You must seek out all good things and ii 
struct one another, and those who do good things will see when the 
(lie the place where the Maker of all things lives." 


Aweyondo' Gavven'notga'o 

Now all hearken to what must be said ! 

We are gathered here because of what our Creator has done. 
He made it so that people should live only a certain length of time- 
none to be more favored th,an another. 

Now our uncles made provisions for this event, and our grand- 
fathers and the chiefs when they first thought of this thing [deathj 
in those days. They had never seen death [before]. Their first 
knowledge came when they saw a person in an assembly die. 
[Strangely] no one was surprised. Soon afterwards they saw an- 
other death in the manner of the first. Soon again another died. 
Then did the chiefs consider the matter, saying, " We were nut 
born to live forever." Then did the people see that they were not 
to live forever but only for a certain period of time. Therefore, 
they made certain rules. Then did they divide the people into clans, 
kashadenioh. Then did they divide the clans into two divisions. 
Now when a death occurred the other division [phratryj was to 
officiate at the funeral. The side that lost one of its members must 
quietly mourn and say nothing. The cousins must do the speaking. 
They must speak telling the mourners what they must think. So 
now first they should say, " Keep your minds up."' 

The preacher then turns to the mourners and addresses iheni as 
follows : 

There are many of your own relations yet remaining, there arc 
old folk and there are children. So let these lift up your minds. 
Moreover here is the earth upon which we tread, everything upon 
it is for our comfort. There is water, springs of water and streams 
of water flowing over the earth. There are ditTerent plants and 
trees. All of these our Creator has given us. So let this lift uj) 
your minds. 

So now then another. 

There is the sky above our heads. There are many things there. 
In the forms of the stars are signs to guide us. The sun gives us 
light. The moon gives us light. She is our grantlmother. The 
sun is our brother. All these are performing that for which they 
were created. So let this lift up your minds. 

So now then another. 

1 Related by Skidmore Lay, Cattaraugus chief, March 1906. 


It is the Gai'wiio', the good word of our Creator. Our Creator 
thought that the people should hear what was in his mind. So he 
sent word down to the earth. He thought that the people should 
know what his words were. Now this should lift up your minds. 

So now then another. 

It is the four geniewage [ceremonies]. Now this should lift up 
your minds. 

[If the dead person is a chief tiie preacher here ceases to give 
the chief on the mourning side an opportunity to reply. The reply 
is as follows] : 

Cousin ! I have heard all that you have laid before us — how we 
should keep our minds. We have commenced from the beginning 
of the world when the Creator made us. " We have thought of the 
water, the springs and the streams of water. We have thought of 
the sky and everything therein, the sun and the moon, the words of 
our Creator and the four ceremonies. These things you have 
pointed out. Oh Cousin ! These things will lift up our minds. 
Now, Cousin, you should know that we accept all that you have 
said. We can not say that we do not accept what you have said. 
Now we put all of your words together ; we accept them all. So is 
the reply, 

[The preacher then arises and continues] : 

So now again listen, all of you ! 

Now let every one listen. 

[The preacher makes an extemporaneous speech in which he 
addresses the entire assembly. Afterward he selects passages from 
the Gai'wiio' among which the following is always repeated] : 

So now another message. 

Now it is said that your people must change certain customs. It 
has been the custom to mourn at each recurring anniversary of the 
death of a friend or relative. It is said that while you are on 
earth you do not realize the harm that this works upon the departed. 

[Now moreover, it is said that wiien an infant is born upon the 
earth with which the parents are dissatisfied it knows and says, 
" I will return to my home above the earth."] 

Now it is said that grief adds to the sorrows of the dead. It is 
said that it is not possible to grieve always. Ten days shall be the 
time for mourning and when our friends depart we must lay grief 
aside. When you, the beings of the earth, lose one of your number 
you must bury your grief in their grave. Some will die today and 
some tomorrow, for all our days are numbered. So hereafter do 


not grieve. Now it is said that when the ten days have elapsed 
to prepare a feast and the soul of the dead will return and partake 
of it with you. It is said moreover that you can journey with the 
dead only as far as the grave. It is said that when you follow a 
body to the grave you must have prepared for that journey as if 
to travel afar. Put on }our finest clothing for every human crea- 
ture is on its journey graveward. It is said that the bodies of the 
dead have intelligence and know what transpires about them. It 
is true. 

So they said and lie saitl. Mniaiehuk. ( Section 67 of the 

[The preacher then announces certain decisions of " the dead 
side " and then continues with the established funeral rite, as 
follows] : 

When the body of the dead is buried we must become resigned 
to our loss. It can not be helped. 

[The preacher speaks to the fathers] : 

Now do you also do the same as the dead side and become re- 
signed to your sorrow ? 

[The preacher addresses the relatives afar off] : 

And now you afar off who are the relatives of the dead,, do you 
become resigned also when you hear of the loss? 

The things of the past shall continue. It [death] should not 
hamper or stop any ordination of the Creator. Let not a death 
stop an event in course of progress. Let us fulfil the law of mourn- 
ing for a ten-day period and have the feast at the end. We believe 
that the dead will return at the end of ten days. Now the Creator 
said, " The customs ordained by the early chiefs [regarding 
mourning] are right. They had no knowledge of what would 
happen in the future when they made the customs but the Creator 
soke to Ganio'dai'io and said, ' True and good is the ceremony of 
your grandfathers for the time of mourning and also the death 
feast.' " 

[When the face of the dead is unwrapped for its friends to look 
upon for the last time the preacher says] : 

Now let all journey to the grave with the body of the dead for 
it is as far as we can go. 

[At the grave the preacher turns to the crowd and says] : 

So now we thank all those who have come to this funeral cere- 
mony to help us. So it is done. 

[The body is then covered with earth.] 



Now let all listen, all ye who are here assembled ! 

Cousins! We all are familiar with the happening of a few days 
ago. We are [therefore] here because of what the Creator has 

Now the relatives have made arrangements. They have prom- 
ised to obey the commands of llic four messengers who said, " It is 
right to have a feast for the dead. Therefore this tiling should be 

Ten days ha\e passed. Now the relatives of the dead have made 
preparations and the feast is ready for the dead. Now let this be 
in your minds, all ye who are here present. 

[The preacher here pauses. At his side sits the speaker for the 
mourners. In his charge is a bundle containing various gifts for 
those who have aided the bereaved family. The speaker has been 
told to whom the various presents are to go, and as the preacher 
pauses and bends down to receive the formal instructions he hands 
him the first gift. Sitting among the women mourners is a woman, 
the " mistress of the ceremonies," whose duty is to deliver the 
gifts to the intended recipients. 

After listening to the directions of the speaker the preacher re- 
sumes] : 

So now the bereaved offer thanks. They thank the one wdio 
cared for the body of the dead and dressed it for burial. To that 
one they give this as a testimony. | The preacher names the ar- 
ticle and the matron rising from her seat receives it and delivers it 
to the person named]. 

[The preacher again bends to the speaker at his side and receives 
the " second word." Again facing the audience he proceeds] : 

So now of another they have thought. It is of the night watcher 
[or night watchers]. To this one [or to these ones], they give this 
roll of cloth [or skins]. And this is your thanks. 

[The speaker hands the preacher the roll and he hands it to the 
matron who delivers it. Stooping and listening to the whispered 
instructions for the delivery of the next gift, the preacher after 
making sure that he understands straightens and again speaks] : 

1 Related by Edward Cornplanter. March 1906. 


Now to him who wrapped the body in its burial covering [or 
made the coffin], the relatives offer thanks. 

[The gift is bestowed as previously described.] 

Now the matron who has managed the funeral receives a gift 
of thanks. 

[This named person l)eing the one who has first received and 
given the gifts now remains seated while the wife or sister of the 
preacher rises and receiving the gift bestows it. According to 
Iroquois etiquette it would be an improper thing for the matron to 
receive her own gift and bear it before the eyes of the crowd to 
her seat. The recipients are supposed not to be eager to receive 
the gifts, the things that once belonged to the dead. Besides ac- 
cording to Irocjuois philosophy one can not give one's self a thing.] 

Now she who notified the people — the relatives desire to give 
thanks and offer this gift. 

Now those who dug the grave — to you the relatives give thanks 
and ofifer gifts. 

And now you the good friends and relatives, of what is remaining 
receive you this gift. [The preacher names each person for whom 
a gift is intended, repeating the formula given. If property of 
considerable value as live stock or lands is left, the speaker for the 
mourners in behalf of the council of heirs tells the preacher their 
decisions and they are announced before the audience. The modern 
" death feast law " provides that in the event of a man's death his 
property must go to his children. Tf he is without issue, then it 
reverts to his wife. If he was un rarried it was given to the 
nearest of kin. The law further ])rovides that the property must 
be divided and apportioned at the " death feast." By the old law 
the nearest of kin on the clan (niaternan side received the prop- 
erty. Children did not ordinarily inherit their father's property, 
but their mother's. Their " mother's husband's " belongings went 
to the kin of the clan to which he belonged.] 

[If the dead were an officer of any kind, the preacher announced 
who was to take his or her place. In order that this election be 
valid the person chosen must stand, if possible, in the very spot 
where the dead person expired.] 

Now I have finished speaking for the relatives. 

Now listen to another matter, all ye who are here ])resent. 

Now at this time let the [mourning] relatives cease their grieving. 
Now may they go and do whatsoever they wish. They are the 
same as ever and may speak as they please again. Now can they 


be notified of things to be done. They have now the right to 
engage in any current happening. No longer think their hands 
must be held back. If it is possible to do, now do, for the time of 
mourning has passed. 

So now we have done our part for you, cousins. So I have done. 

[The preacher resumes his seat.] 

[The speaker for the mourning side arises and addresses the offi- 
ciating side] : 

Now listen cousins ! 

We have heard all that you have said and | know that] you have 
done your part. We believe that you have done your part. You 
must hold in your minds that we thank you for what you have done 
for us. Now I give you this [the object is named] for your trouble. 

[Although the speaker is standing at the side of the preacher, 
the latter can not receive the gift direct, but the matron rising from 
her seat takes the offering and holds it out to him. Even then he 
does not take it but points to his wife or mother, indicating that it 
is to be placed in her keeping.] 

[The speaker continues] : 

Now we must ask your pardon for giving so small a gift ; it is 
small and your services have been great. 

Now we relieve you of your duties, the duties for which we 
bound you. Now you are relieved. 

[The preacher rises and says] : 

Now all listen to a few more words that I shall say ! 

Let all the people here gathered keep silent. Now is the time 
for the distribution of the feast. It will now be distributed, for it 
has been prejiared and we must eat. Now let they who did the 
cooking distribute. Let all tarry until the feast is finished. Let 
hard feelings affect no one and let the matrons divide equally and 
overlook none. So it is finished. 



During the last six years the writer has made a detailed field 
study of the various phases of Iroquois culture, special attention 
being directed to the rites and ceremonies of the semisecret orders 
and societies that yet survive among the so-called pagan Iroquois. 
It was only after diligent inquiry that the actual existence of these 
societies was clearly established. The False Face Company and the 
Secret Medicine Society, better termed The Little Water Company, 
have been known to ethnologists for some time, but no one has ade- 
quately described them or has seemed fully aware of their signifi- 
cance. Likewise certain dances, such as the Bird, the Bear, the 
Bufifalo, the Dark, and the Death dances, have been mentioned. 
Ceremonies also, such as the Otter ceremony and the Woman's 
song, have been listed, but that back of all these ceremonies there 
was a society never seems to have occurred to anyone. The Indians 
do not volunteer information, and when some rite is mentioned they 
usually call it a dance. Through this subterfuge the existence of 
these societies has long been concealed, not only from white investi- 
gators but from Christian Indians as well, the latter usually pro- 
fessing ignorance of the " pagan practices " of their unprogressive 

Even so close an observer as Lewis H. Morgan says : " The 
Senecas have lost their Medicine Lodges, which fell out in modern 
times ; but they formerly existed and formed an important part of 
their religious system. To hold a Medicine Lodge was to observe 
their highest religious mysteries. They had two such organiza- 
tions, one for each phratry, which shows still furtlier the natural 
connection of the phratry and the religious observances. Very 
little is now known concerning these lodges or their ceremonies. 
Each was a brotherhood into which new members were admitted 
by formal initiation."^ 

Morgan's experience is that of most observers, close as their 
observation may be. The writer, with the assistance of his wife, 
however, living with the " pagans " and entering fully into their 
rites, discovered that the " medicine lodges,'' so far from having 
become extinct, arc still active organizations, exercising a great 

^ AdaptftI from the autlior's article in American Anthropologist, 2:2, April- 
June, 1909. 

2 Morgan, Ancient Society, p. 97. ed. 1907. 


amount of influence not only over the pas^ans but also over the 
nominal Christians. 

It was found that the oro^anization and rites of the societies 
might best be studied among' the vSencca, who have preserved their 
rituals with great fidelity. The Onondaga, although keeping up 
the form of some, have lost many of the ancient features and look- 
to the Seneca for the correct forms. 

The teachings of Ganio'dai'io', Handsome Lake, the Seneca 
prophet, revolutionized the religious life of the Iroquois to a large 
extent, its greatest immediate effect being on the Seneca and Onon- 
daga. Later it greatly influenced the Canadian Iroquois, excepting 
perhaps the Mohawk about the St Lawrence. Handsome Lake 
sought to destro.y the ancient folk-ways of the people and to sub- 
stitute a new system, built of course upon the framework of the old. 
Finding that he made little headwav in his teachings, he sought to 
destroy the societies and orders that conserved the older religious 
rites, by proclaiming a revelation from the Creator. The divine 
decree was a command that all the animal societies hold a final 
meeting at a certain time, throw tobacco in the ceremonial fires, 
and dissolve. The heavenly reason for this order. Handsome Lake 
explained, was that men were acquainted with the efi'ects of their 
familiaritv with the spirits of the animals, which, although thev 
might bring fortune and healing to the members of the animal's 
order, might work terril)le harm to men and to other animals. 

The chiefs who were f^-iendly to the prophet and others who 
were frightened by his threats met in counsel and proclaimed that 
all the animal and mystcrv societies should immediately dissolve, 
and, bv their order, were dissolved and disbanded. This they did 
without holding a hayant'wiitgus, tobacco-throwing ceremonv, as 
directed. The members of the societies, therefore, declared that 
the order of the council was illegal and not binding, that the sin of 
disobedience was upon the chiefs and not upon the body of mem- 
bc-s. The societies consequently continued their rites, although 
thev found it expedient to do so secretly, for they were branded as 
witches and wizards,^ and the members of one society at least were 
executed as sorcerers when they were found practising their arts. 

The existence of the societies became doubly veiled. The zealous 
proselvtes of the New Religion denied their legality and even their 
existence, and the adherents of the old system did not care to 

■> The modern Tmqunis call all ^nrrcrrrs and rnnjurcrs. regardless of sex, 
" witches." Thev never nse the masculine form. 


express themselves too strongly in the matter of proclaiming^ their 
sacred orders still very much alive. The rites of the societies were 
performed in secret places for a number of years after the advent of 
the prophet, but as the adherents of the New Religion became more 
conservative, the societies again gradually entered into public cere- 
monies held in the council houses on thanksgiving occasions. At 
such times some of them gave public exhibitions of their rites ; others 
had no public ceremonies whatsoever. With the gradual acceptance 
of the New Religion by the great majority of the people, the older 
religious belief was blended into the new. The Iroquois regard it, 
as their Old Testament. The tabooed societies became bolder in 
their operations, and the new religionists entered their folds with 
few if any qualms. 

It was about this time that their policy seems to have changed, 
for after some inquiry the writer can find no restriction placed on 
membership by reason of phratry or clanship. Candidates might 
join anv societv regardless of clan except the society of Men-who- 
assist-the-women's-ceremonies. which is not a secret organization. 
This society consists of two divisions, the membership of a division 
being determined by phratry. It is purely a benevolent society, 
however, and has nothing to do with " medicine." The various 
societies of all kinds had. and still have, individual lodges, each of 
which is nominally independent of any jurisdiction save that of its 
own oflficers. The leaders, however, confer and keep their rites 
uniform. At present, especially in the Little Water Company, it is 
not even necessary for the song-holder, the chief officer, to be a 
pagan. This company is the only one which can boast of any great 
Christian membership or of a lodge composed entirely of nominal 
Christians. This lodge is the Pleasant Valley Lodge of the Little 
Water Company on the Cattaraugus reservation. Mrs Harriet 
Maxwell Converse joined this lodge in t8o2. afterward joining the 
pagan lodge at Newtow.i. 

A careful studv of the Iroquois societies will lead to the conclu- 
sion that most of the societies are of ancient origin and that their 
rituals have been transmitted with little change for many years. 
Indeed, that under the circumstances any changes should have been 
made would be stranger than that none had occurred at all. Most 
of the rituals are chanted in unison by the entire comoany of mem- 
bers, and any change in note, syllable, o^ word would immediately 
be detected. Rites transmitted by song arc more difficult to change 
than simple recitals where musical rh\-thm is not correlated with the 


word. Some of the rituals, moreover, contain archaic words and 
expressions, and even entire sentences are not understood by the 

ICach society has a legend by which its origin and peculiar rites 
are explained. Most of these legends portray the founder of the 
society as a lost hunter, an outcast orphan, or a venturesome youth 
curious to know what was farther on. The founder got into strange 
complications, saw strange or familiar animals engaged in their rites, 
was discovered, forgiven, adopted, kept a captive, and finally, after 
long study and many warnings, was sent back to his people to teach 
them the secrets of the animals and how their favor could be 
obtained. The secrets were to be preserved by the society which the 
hero was to found. ^ There are some variations of this abstract, but 
it covers the general features of most of the legends. 

The study of the societies was commenced by the writer in 1902, 
and during the years 1905-6 an almost uninterrupted study was 
made for the New York State Education Department, and the 
results deposited in the State Library. Since that time the research 
has been continued for the Nfew York State Museum. Paraphernalia 
have been collected, phonograph records have been made of many 
of the songs and ceremonial speeches, texts have been recorded and 
translated, legends have been gathered, and some music has already 
been transcribed. There still remains an enormous amount of work 
to be done, and it is greatly to be regretted that a multiplicity of 
duties bars the ^\■ay for as speedy progress in this work as might be 
desirable, especially since many of the informants are old people and 
in ill health. 

A l)rief outline of the various societies is presented in this paper. 
It is impossible for the sake of brevity to present a fair compend 
or even a systematic outline. The main features of the less known 
organizations and some neglected facts of the few that are better 
known are mentioned, it being hoped that even such statements 
may be useful to students of ethnology. The list follows.^ 



This society is perhaps the best organized of all the Seneca folk- 
societies. It holds four meetings each year, but only on three 
occasions is the night song, Ganoda, chanted. To describe ade- 

1 Myths and Legends of the Iroquois, N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 125, p. 176. 

2 A description of some of these societies was prepared for incorporation 
in the Fifth Annual Report of the Director of the State Museum, igog. 


quately the rites of this society would require a small voluuie. For 
the purposes of this paper, since the society has been described at 
greater length elsewhere, only a few notes can be given. 

The company is organized to perfor.n the rites thought neces- 
sary to preserve the potency of the " secret medicine," niganega"a', 
known as the " little-water powder." The meetings, moreover, are 
social gatherings of the members in which they can renew friend- 
ship and smoke away mutual wrongs, if any have been committed. 
It is contrary to the rules to admit members having a quarrel unless 
they are willing to forgive and forget. Both men and women are 
members. Its officers, in order of their importance, are : the song- 
holder, the chief matron, the watcher of the medicine, the feast- 
makers, invoker, flute-holder, and announcers and sentinels. There 
are two altars, the Altar of the Fire and the Altar of the Mystery. 
The ritual consists of three sets of songs describing the various 
adventures of the founder, known as the Good Hunter. At the 
close of each section the feast-makers pass bowls of berry juice, 
giving each singer a draft from a ladle. In some lodges a pipe is 
passed. An intermission then follows, during which the members, 
men and women alike, sroke the native home-grown tobacco. The 
singing is accompanied by the shaking of gourd rattles, and each 
member shakes one while he sings. Only purified members are 
supposed to enter. Unclean men or women, even though members, 
are debarred. The society has no public ceremony and no dances. 
Only members are supposed to know the j)recise time and place of 
meeting. .The songs must never be sung outside of the lodge-room, 
but special meetings are sometimes called for the purpose of in- 
structing novices. The office of song-holder by the Cattaraugus 
Seneca is hereditary to the name O'dim'kot. Sunshine. The present 
song-holder of the Ganun'dase lodge, the pagan lodge at New- 
town, Cataraugus reservation, is a youth who is learning the song, 
George Pierce, the former O'dan'kot. having recently died. 
Visitors may listen to the songs in an outer room, but are del)arred 
from viewing the " mysteries." Each member, on entering, de- 
posits his medicine packet on the Altar of the Mystery and places 
his contribution of tobacco in the corn-husk basket. The tobacco 
is thrown into the fire by the invoker as he chants his prayer to 
the Creator, the Thunder Spirit, and to the Great Darkness. The 



flute-song is played during the second and third sections. At 
the close of the ceremony a pig's head is passed and pieces of 
tlie l)oilcd meat are torn from the head with tlie teeth, the mem- 
bers cawing in imitation of crows. In early times a bear's head 
was eaten. The food is then distributed, and the meeting or 

■"ig. 3 The medicine outfit, liusk tray, medicine bundle, rattle and flute 

■■ sitting "' is concluded. The ceremony commences at about 1 1 
o'clock p. ni. and is adjourned at daybreak. The sun "' must not 
see the riles." Tlie business of the society is all conducted before 
the ceremonv commences: reports of the officers are gi\en and the 
treasurer's re])ort read. The ])araphernalia of this societx' consist 
of the medicine btindles, the flute, gotird rattles for each singer, the 
sacred tobacco I)asket and a ])ark dii)per. The necessary furnish- 
ings are a table and a firejilace, these being the " altars."" and a lamp. 
The " medicine " is not used in the ceremonies: it is simply " sung 
for."" Its ])()\ver is conserved for use by the niedicine people in heal- 
ing ceremonies. The singing of the rittial is conducted in total 
darkness, the lights l)jing brought in (july during the intermissions. 

the code of handsome lake 110 

dewanondiisso"daik'ta', pygmy society, the dark dance 


The ritual of thib socict}' consists of ioj songs, divided into four 
sections, as follows: The tirst section, 13 songs; the second, 23 
songs; the third, 30 songs, and the fourth, 34 songs. Tlie order of 
the ceremony is somewhat like that of the Medicine Company. All 
the songs are sung in darkness. It is beliexed that the spirit mem- 
bers of the society come and join in the singing, and their xoices 
are thought to be audible at times. 

The water drum and the horn rattle are used in this (.-eremoiu- 
for keeping time. There is a brief dance. The Dark ceremony is 
designed to appease certain sjjirits and to procure the good ot^ces of 
others. Aleetings are called at an)- time for the purpose of appeas- 
ing the sj^irits of certain charms that ha\-e become im})otent or which 
may become so, or are called by members and even by nonmeml)ers 
who are troubled by certain signs and sounds, such as the drum- 
ming of the water fairies or stone throwers, ])\gmies, who bv their 
signs signify their desire for a ceremony. Nonmembers become 
members by asking for the services of the societv. The rites arc 
l)reeminently the religion of the "" little folk "' whose good will is 
sought by all Indians living under the intiuence of the ( )ngwe''- 
ohwe'ka', Indian belief. Idic Pygmies are thotight to be " next to 
the people " in importance, and to be ver\' jxiwerful ])eings. They 
demand proper attention or they will iuHict punishment upon those 
who neglect them. This societ\-, however, " sings for " all the 
" medicine charms " and all the ma'^ic animals. These magic ani- 
mals are members of the society, and in order of their importance 
are: Jo"ga'o", Elves or Pygmies; Jodi''gwado"'. the Great Idorned 
Serpent ; Shondowek'owa, the Blue Panther, the herald of 
death ; Dewutiowa'is, the Exploding Wren. ( )ther members, equal 
in rank, are: DiatdagwCtt', White [5ea\er; ( )'nowaot'g"ont, or 
Gane''onttwut, the Corn-])Ug; (Itnii'yont, .Shar])-legs ; O'wai'ta, 
Little Dry Hand; Dagwun'noyaent, Wind S])irit, and .\'ia"'gwahe. 
( ireat Naked Rear. 

These charm-members are called 1 lo'tciiie'gada. The charms or 
])arts of these members, which the luiman members keep and sing 
for, are: none oi the first two, because thev are \er\' sacred and 
'' use their nnnds " onl\- for charms ; panther's claw ; feathers ; white 
beaver's castor ; corn-bug dried ; bone of sharp-legs ; dry hand ; hair 
of the wind, and bones of Nia''gwahe. Some of these charms bring 
evil to the owners, but must not be destroyed under any circum- 


Stance. Their evil influence can be warded off only by the cere- 
monies. The owner or his family appoints someone to " hold the 
charm "' after the first owner's death. Other charms are only for 
benevolent purposes, but become angry if neglected. Of the evil 
charms, the sharp bone may be mentioned ; and of the good charms 
the exploding bird's feathers. Most of them are regarded, how- 
ever, as ot'gont. The members of this society save their fingernail 
parings and throw them over cliifs for the Pygmies. 

The ceremonies of the societies are always opened with a speech 
by the invoker. The following speech is that of the Pygmy So- 
ciety, and in a general way is the pattern of nearly all opening 

Yotdondak'o' , Opening Ceremony of the Pygmy Society 

We now commence to thank our Creator. 

Now we are thankful that we who have assembled here are well. 

We are thankful to the Creator for the world and all that is upon 
it for our benefit. 

We thank the Sun and the Moon. 

We thank the Creator that so far tonight we are all well. 

Now I announce that A B is to be treated. 

Now this one, C D, will throw tobacco in the fire. 

Now these will lead the singing, E and F. 

So I have said. 

[The "tobacco thrower'' advances to the fire and, seating him- 
self, takes a basket of Indian tobacco and speaks as follows :] 

Now the smoke rises ! 

Receive you this incense! 

You who run in the darkness. 

You know that this one has thought of you 

And throws this tobacco for you. 

Now you are able to cause sickness. 

Now, when first you knew that men-beings were on earth, you 

"They are our grandchildren." 

You promised to be one of the forces for men-beings' helj). 

For thereby you would recci\e offerings of tobacco. 

So now you get tobacco — von. the P\gmies. [Sprinkles to1)acco 
on the fire.] 

Now is the time when you have come ; 

You and the member have assembled here tonight. 


Now again you receive tobacco — you, the Pygmies. [Throws 

You are the wanderers of the mountains ; 

You have promised to hear us whenever the drum sounds, 

Even as far away as a seven days" journey. 

Now all of you receive tobacco. [Throws tobacco.] 

You well know the members of this society, 

So let this^ cease. 

You are the cause of a person, a member, becoming ill. 

Henceforth give good fortune for she (or he) has fulfilled her 
duty and given you tobacco. 

You love tobacco and we remember it ; 

So also yoti should remember us. 

Now the drum receives tobacco. 

And the rattle also. 

It is our belief that we have said all, 

So now we hope that you will help us. 

Now these are the words spoken before you all. 

You who are gathered here tonight. 

So now it is done. 


This is a band of women organized to propitiate the otters and 
other water animals who are supposed to exercise an influence over 
the health, fortunes, and destinies of men. The otter, which is the 
chief of the small water animals, including the fish, is a powerful 
medicine-animal, and besides having his own special society is a 
member of the Ye'dos, or T'dos, and the Hono'Tcino''ga'. 

The Otters may appear at any public thanksgiving, as the Green 
Corn dance and the Midwinter ceremony. After a tobacco-throw- 
ing ceremony, hayant'wutgus, the three women officers of the 
DawanMo' each dip a bucket of the medicine-water from the spring 
or stream, dipping down with the current, and carry it to the coun- 
cil house where they sprinkle everyone they meet by dipping long 
wisps of corn husk in the water and shaking them at the people. If 
the women succeed in entering the council house and sprinkling 
everyone without hindrance, they go for more water and continue 
until stopped. The only way in which they may be forced to dis- 
continue their sprinkling is for someone, just before she sprinkles 
him, to snatch the pail and throw the entire contents over her liead. 

1 The malific influence causing sickness. 


The Otter woman will then say, "' iiat'gaii", niavve' I *" — meaning, 
■' Enough, i thank you! " She will then retire. 

The Utters are especially active during the Midwinter ceremony, 
and when the water is thrown over their heads it very often freezes, 
but this is something only to be enjoyed. When possessed with the 
spirit of the otter, the women are said to be unaware of their actions, 
and sometimes, when they are particularly zealous, the whistle of 
the otter is heard. This greatly frightens the people, who regard it 
as a manifestation of the presence of the " great medicine otter." 
The women afterward deny having imitated the otter's call, saying 
that they were possessed of the otter and had no knowledge of what 
they did. 

The Otter Society has no songs and no dances. Its members 
are organized simply to give thanks to the water animals and to 
retain their favor. When one is ungrateful to the water animals, 
as a wasteful fisherman, or a hunter who kills muskrats or beaver 
without asking permission or offering tobacco to their spirits, he 
becomes strangely ill, so it is believed. The Otters then go to a 
spring and conduct a ceremony, after which they enter the sick 
man's lodge and sprinkle him with spring water, hoping thereby to 
cure him. 

i''dos oa'no', society of mystic animals 

The T'dos Company is a band of " medicine " people whose ob- 
ject is to preserve and perform the rites thought necessary to keep 
the continued good will of the " medicine " animals. According 
to the traditions of the company, these animals in ancient times 
entered into a league with them. The animals taught them the 
ceremonies necessary to please them, and said that, should these be 
faithfully performed, they would continue to be of service to man- 
kind. They would cure disease, banish pain, displace the causes of 
disasters in nature, and overcome ill luck. 

FAcry member of the company has an individual song to sing in 
the ceremonies, and thus the length of the ceremony depends on 
the mimber of the members. When a person enters the I'^'dos, he 
is given a gourd rattle and a song. These he must keep with care, 
not forgetting the song or losing the rattle. 

The head singers of the T'dos are two men who chant the dance 
song, lliis chant relates the marvels that the medicine man is able 
to perform, and as they sing he proceeds to do as the song directs, 
lie lifts a red-hot stone from the lodge fire and tosses it like a ball 
in liis naked hands ; he demonstrates that he can see through a 


carved wooden mask having no eyeholes, by finding various things 
about the lodge ; he causes a doll to appear as a living being, and 
mystifies the company in other ways. It is related that new mem- 
bers sometimes doubt the power of the mystery-man and laugh out- 
right at some of the claims of which he boasts. In such a case he 
approaches the doll, and though his face be covered by a wooden 
mask, cuts the string that fastens its skirt. The skirt drops, expos- 
ing the legs of the doll. Then the doubting woman laughs, for 
everyone else is laughing, at the doll she supposes, but shortly she 
notices that everyone is looking at her, and to her utmost chagrin 
discovers that her own skirt-string has been cut and that she is cov- 
ered only by her undergarments. Immediately she stops laughing 
and never afterward doubts the powers of the medicine-man, who, 
when he cut the doll's skirt-string by his magic power, cuts hers 

The T'dos is said to have been introduced among the Seneca 
bv the Huron, llie ritual, however, is in Seneca, though some of 
the words are not understood. The ])rincipal ceremonies are: 
(o) Gai'yowe"'ogov.'a, The sharp point; ( /' ) Gahadi'yago", At the 
wood's edge; (c) Gai'Mo", The great Gai"do". Other ceremonies 
are : 0'to'do"gwa'^ It is blazing ; and Tci'gwawa, The other way 
around. During ceremonies b and c only individual members sing. 
The chief of the society is said to be a man who is able to see 
through a wooden mask which has no eye-openings. By his magic 
power he is able to discover hidden things previously concealed l)y 
the members, probably by some particular member. He discoxers 
the ceremonial, no matter where hidden, and juggles with a hot 
stone drawn from the fire. When the ceremonies are finished the 
members feast on a pig's head. In early times a deer's head was 
used. As do the members of the Medicine Lodge upon such an 
occasion, the members tear the meat from the head with their teeth. 
The ceremonies of the society are now considered an efficacious 
treatment for fevers and skin diseases. The rites are supposed to 
be strictly secret. 

The writer has transcribed the entire text of the F'dos ritual in 
Seneca and has translated it. Three masks are used in the rites — 
the Conjuror's mask, the Witch mask, and the Dual-spirit's mask. 
These masks are never used in the rites of the False Face Company 
and difi^er from them in that they have no metal eyes. A flash- 
light picture of a corner of the I''dos lodge was made by the writer 
in January 1909, but the session of the lodge was not one of tlie 
" regular " ones. 

124 new york state museum 

sha'^dotgr'a, the eagle society 

The ritual of the Eagle Society consists of ten songs and a dance. 
The song is called Gane'^gwae oa''no'. Every member participat- 
ing in the ceremony paints on each cheek a round red spot. No one 
but members may engage in its ceremonies, even though these be 
performed publicly. The Eagle Society's ceremony is regarded as 
most sacred, in this respect next to the Great Feather Dance, 
O'stowii'gowa. It is believed that the society holds in its songs the 
most potent charms known. It is said that the dying, especially 
those afflicted with wasting diseases, and old people, have been 
completelv restored b}'- its ceremonies. This is because the Dew 
Eagle, to which the society is dedicated, is the reviver of wilting 
things.^ The membership is divided into two classes by phratry- 
ship. A person may become a member by dreaming such a thing 
necessary, or by receiving the rites of the society in case of illness. 
Special costumes are worn in the ceremonies. In the dance the 
members divide and stand opposite each other according to phratry, 
the animals opposite the birds. Two dancers from each phratry 
are chosen, and one singer from each. The dancers assume a squat- 
ting posture and imitate the motions of birds. The physical exer- 
tion is intense and requires constant interruption. The dancers and 
singers continue to dance and sing until completely exhausted, unless 
someone strikes the signal pole and makes a speech. The dancers 
then retire to their benches until the speech ends, when the singers 
take up their song and the dance is continued. After his speech, 
the speaker, who may be any member, presents the dancers for 
whom he speaks with a gift of monev. tobacco, or bread : but the 
old custom was to give only such things as birds liked for food. 
The speeches are usually in praise of one's own clan and in derision 
of the opposite phratry. At the close, the speakers all apologize for 
their clannish zeal, and say, as if ever^'one did not known it, that 
their Jibes were intended only as jests. The dancers each hold in 
their left hands a calumet fan. made by suspending six heron or 
four eagle feathers parallel and horizontally from a rod or reed. In 
their right hands they hold small gourd rattles with wooden handles, 
or small bark rattles made of a folded strip of hickory bark pat- 
terned after the larger False-face bark rattles. The signal pole and 
the striking stick are spirally striped with red paint. After the 

^The Dew Eaijle refreshed the scalp of the Good Hunter by pluckinpr a 
feather from its hreast and sprinklinc: the scalp with dew from the lake in 
the hollow of its back. 



ceremony, when held in a private lodge, the members feast on a pig's 
head; but this is a modern substitute for a bear's or a deer's head, 
though crows' heads once were eaten also. 


The ritual of the Bear Society consists of twenty songs and a 
dance. During the intermissions in the dance, 
that is, between songs, the participants eat 
berries from a pan on the dance-bench, or, in 
winter, eat honey, taking portions of the comb 
and eating it as they walk about the bench. 
The ceremony is opened by making a tobacco 
offering to the spirits of the bears, during 
which the chief Bear-man makes an in- 
vocation. The high officer of the society, 
however, is a woman. The symbol of mem- 
bership is a black streak drawn diagonally 
across the right cheek. The object of the 
society is to cure the diseases of its mem- 
bers and candidates by chanting and dancing. 
The ceremony is believed to be a remedy 
for fevers and rheumatism, as well as to 
bring good fortune. In a healing ceremony 
the chief woman blows on the head of the 
patient. After a ceremony the members 
carry home with them pails of bear pud- 
ding, a sweetened corn pudding mixed with 
sunflower oil. The Bears use the water 
drum and horn rattles. All Seneca dances 

are counterclockwise. F'?,4 ^ Horn RatUe^use^d i„ 



The ritual of this society consists of a number of songs which 
relate the story of the origin of the order. After a ceremony in 
which there is a dance, the members depart, carrying with them the 
buffalo pudding. The dancers imitate the action of buffalo when 
stamping off flies, and the pudding is supposed to be of the consis- 
tency of the mud in which the buffalo stamps. When it is eaten it 
acts as a charm that " stamps off " disease or ill fortune. The 
Buffalos use the water drum and horn rattles. 



The O'gi'we ceremony is called for by any member who dreams 
of the restless spirit of some former member, relative, or friend. At 
the ceremony the set of songs is sung, the large water drum beaten, 
and a feast indulged in. The food is supposed to satisfy the hungry 
ghosts that for some reason are " earth-bound," as spiritists might 
express it. The O'gi'we ceremony must not be confused with the 
Death Feast ceremony, which is a clan affair. The diviner of the 
O'gi'we people is able to identify the unknown spirit which may be 
troubling the dreams of a member. The sickness and ill fortune 
caused by evil ghosts may be dispelled by the ceremony. The chief 
ofificer is a woman. 


This society preserves the ritual by which good fortune and 
health are obtained for women. The singers, fourteen in number 
at Cattaraugus, are all men. During their singing the women dance. 
The office of chief singer is hereditary. Tlic women join in a 
chorus as the men sing. Horn rattles and water drums are used. 


This society is composed of a body of women whose special duty 
is to offer thanks to the spirits of the corn, the beans, and the 
squashes. Dio'he'ko (these sustain our lives). By their ceremonies 
of thanksgiving the Towii''sas propitiate the spirits of growth, and 
people are assured of a good harvest. The Towii'sas have a cere- 
monial song and a march, but no dances. The legend of the society 
relates that the entire band of Towii'sas, in the latter part of the 
seventeenth century, was captured by the Cherokee and carried 
down the Ohio river. Thereafter two men were admitted as escorts 
in their march through the woods. At the closing of the ceremony 
the head-woman chants the Dio'he'ko song as she leads her band 
about a kettle of corn pudding. She carries an armful of corn on 
the cob ; in her right hand she holds some loose beans, and in her 
left some squash seeds, the emblems of fcrtilitv. The Towii'sas 
hold one ceremony each year, unless some calamity threatens the 
harvest. The rattle of this society is made of a land tortoise (box- 
turtle") shell. These arc often found in graves, but their exact use 
in the Iroquois territory has not generally been known to arche- 
ologists. The leg rattle is another variety having several perfora- 




This organization is one of the better known societies of the Iro- 
quois, and its rites have often been described, though not always 
correctly interpreted. There are three divisions of the False Faces, 
and four classes of masks — doorkeeper or doctor masks, dancing 
masks, beggar masks, and secret masks. The beggar and thief 
masks form no part of the paraphernalia of 
the true society, and the secret masks are 
never used in public ceremonies in the coun- 
cil house at the midwinter ceremony. The 
False Face ceremonies have been well de- 
scribed, though by no means exhaustively, 
by Morgan^ and Boyle." The main features 
are generally known. 

The paraphernalia of this society consist 
of the masks j)reviously mentioned, turtle- 
shell rattles (snai)ping turtles onlyj, hickory 
bark rattles, head tliruws, a leader's pole 
upon which is fastened a small husk face, a 
small wooden false face, and a small turtle 
rattle, and a tobacco basket. 

There are two Seneca legends setting 
forth the origin of the False Faces, and three 
with the Mohawk story. These stories, how- 
ever, explain the origin of different classes 
of masks. Each mask has a name. One 
story relates that the False Faces originated with the Stone Gaints. 
However this may be, the writer obtained in 1905, from a woman 
claiming to be the keeper of the secret masks, a mask representing 
the Stone Gaint's face. With it was a mask made of wood, over 
which was stretched a rabbit skin stained with blood. This mask 
was supposed to represent the face of a traitor as he would look 
when drowned for his infamy. Chief Delos Kettle said it was used 
to cure veneral diseases. 

There is some dispute as to the antiquity of the False Face Com- 
pany. Doctor Beauchamp, in his History of the Iroquois," says it is 
comparatively recent. From a study of the Seneca society, liow- 
ever, the writer is inclined to l)elieve that it is quite old with them, 

Fig. S Typical mrdicinc mask 

1 Morgan, Fifth Annual Report New York State Cabinet (Museum), 1852, 

'Boyle, Archaeological Report, Provincial Museum, Toronto, 1898, p. 157. 
N. Y. State Mus. P.ul. 78, p. 141. 


although it may be more recent with the other Iroquois. Early 
explorers certainly could not have seen everything of Iroquois cul- 
ture, especially some of the secret things, and then- lack of descrip- 
tion may be regarded as negative testimony rather than as positive 
evidence of the nonexistence of certain features which later students 
have found, it is quite possible that the author of " Van Curler's " 
Journal of 1634-35 mentions a false face when he writes: "This 
chief showed me his idol ; it was a head with the teeth sticking out ; 
it was dressed in red cloth. Others have a snake, a turtle, a swan, 
a crane, a pigeon for their idols. . . ."' The Seneca at present 
drape their false faces when they hang them up for safe keeping, 
and use them as well as turtle and snake charms as bringers of good 
fortune. Some pipes from seventeenth-century graves seem to rep- 
resent blowing masks. Mr M. R. Harrington and the writer found 
one in 1903 while excavating a seventeenth-century site, since 
learned to be of Seneca occupancy, on Cattaraugus creek, near 
Irving. The counterpart of this pipe was found by R. M. Peck on 
the Warren site, near West Bloomheld, N. Y. The Indians say it 
is a False Face blowing ashes, and such it may represent. Mr Har- 
rington, and the writer as well, have found what may be false face 
eye-disks, as well as turtle-shell rattles, in Seneca and Erie graves. 
The principal False Face ceremonies are : Ganoi'^iowi, Marching 
Song; Hodigosshos'ga, Doctors' Dance, and Yea°se°dadi'yas, Door- 
keepers' Dance. 


Now receive you this tobacco, you, Shagodiowe'^'gowa, the great 
false face. 

Now it is that you have come to where your grandchildren are 

Now you are taking the place of the great false faces who are 
wandering in the rocky valleys and mountains. 

Now you are the ones who think much of this sacred tobacco. 

Now we wish to make a request of you. So we always offer this 
sacred tobacco [literally, real tobacco], when we ask anything of 

We pray that you help us with your power. 

You can go over all the earth. 

In the center of the earth is a great pine tree and that is the place 
of your resting. It is there that you rub your rattle when you come 
to rest. 


N'ow then this tree receives this tobacco. 

We ask that you watch over us and exercise your power to pro- 
tect us from anything harmful. 

We hold in mind that you have ever done your duty in past times 
and we ask that you continue [vigilant] henceforth. 

We use this tobacco when we ask favors of you for you are very 
fond of this tobacco. 

Now your cane gets tobacco. The great pine tree to its top is 
your cane. 

Now you, the husk faces, you get tobacco also. 

You have been associated with the false faces in times past. Now 
you receive tobacco for you have done your duty. 

So it is finished. 


This society seems rather loosely organized among the Seneca, 
but its chief members act as water doctors. They endeavor to cure 
certain diseases by spraying and sprinkling water on the patients. 
Two Husk-faces are admitted with the False Faces in their mid- 
winter long-house ceremony, and act as door-openers. As a com- 
pany they also have a ceremony in which the Grandfather's Dance 
is featured. The grandfather is attired in rags, and, holding a cane 
stationary, dances in a circle about it, using the cane as a pivot. The 
company dance is one in which all the members participate. Non- 
members may partake of the medicine influence of the ceremony 
by joining in the dance at the end of the line when the ceremony is 
performed in the council house at the midwinter festival. 

That the foregoing so-called societies are in fact organizations, 
and that their rites are not merely open ceremonies in which anyone 
may engage, is apparent from the following considerations : 

1 The organizations have permanent officers for the various parts 
of their rites. 

2 They have executive officers. 

3 They have certain objects and stand for specific purposes. 

4 They have stable and unchangeable rituals. 

5 Those who have not undergone some form of an initiatory 
rite are not allowed to enter into their ceremonies. 

6 They have legends by which the origin and objects of the rites 
are explained. 

7 It is not permissible to recite the rituals or to chant any of the 
songs outside of the lodge to anyone who has not been inducted mto 
the society. 


Some of the societies have other features, such as stated meet- 
ings and officers' reports, but the foregoing characteristics apply to 
all the Seneca secret or semisecret ceremonies and entitle them to 
the name of societies. 

When an Indian is afflicted with some disorder which can not be 
identified by the native herb doctors, the relatives of the patient 
consult a clairvoyant, who names the ceremony, one of those above 
described, believed to be efficacious in treating the ailment. Some 
times several ceremonies are necessary, and as a final resort a watch- 
doctor is called upon. 

As to the influence of these organizations on the people, while 
it must be confessed that they foster some " superstitions " incon- 
sistent with the modern folk-ways of civilized society, they serve 
more than any other means to conserve the national life of the peo- 
ple. The strongest body of Iroquois in New York today are the 
two bands or divisions of the Seneca, and the Seneca have the larg- 
est numl)er of " j)ugans." They are perhaps likewise the most 
patriotic, and struggle with greater energy to retain their tribal 
organization and national identity. 

The customs of these adherents of the old Irocjuois religion read 
on and influence the entire body of the people, " pagans " and 
Christians alike. 


Plate 20 

Sacrifice of the White Dog on the Grand River reservation of the Six 

Nations, Canada 




The Iroquois of New York and Canada still retain vestiges of 
their former adoration of the sun, and observe certain rites, very 
likely survivals of more elaborate sun ceremonies. 

The writer has witnessed several so-called " sun dances " among 
the Iroquois ; but in every case the dance was the Ostowa''gowa, or 
Great Feather Dance, the prime religious dance of the Gai'wiio' 
religion. This modern religion was originated about 1800 by 
Ganio'dai'io* (" Handsome Lake " the Seneca prophet) and almost 
entirely revolutionized the religious system of the Iroquois of New 
York and Ontario. Few of the early folk beliefs have survived the 
taboo of the prophet; and these beliefs are not easily traced, or even 
discovered, unless one has before him the Gai'wiio' of Handsome 
Lake and the Code of Dekanowi'da, the founder of the Confed- 

The Seneca sun ceremony, Endeka Dii'kwa Dannon'dinon'nio' 
("Day Orb-of-light Thanksgiving"), is called by any individual 
who dreams that the rite is necessary for the welfare of the com- 
munity. The ceremony begins promptly at high noon, when three 
showers of arrows or volleys from muskets are shot heavenward to 
notify the sun of the intention to address him. After each of the 
volleys the populace shout their war cries, " for the sun loves war." 
A ceremonial fire is built — anciently by the use of a pump-drill, 
modernly by a match — and the sun-priest chants his thanksgiving 
song, casting from a husk basket handfuls of native tobacco upon 
the flames as he sings. This ceremony takes place outside the long 
house, where the rising smoke may lift the words of the speaker to 
the sun. Immediately after this, the entire assemblage enters the 
long house, where the costumed Feather dancers start the Osto- 

Among the Onondaga of the Grand River reserve in Ontario, the 
leader of the sun ceremony carries an effigy of the sun. This is a 
disk of wood ten inches in diameter, fastened to a handle perhaps a 
foot long. The disk is painted red in the center, and has a border 
of yellow. Around the edge are stuck yellow-tipped down-feathers 
from some large bird. The New York Iroquois have no such 
effigies, and the writer seriously doubts that the preachers of Hand- 
some Lake's Gai'wiio' would permit such a practice, it being a viola- 

^ A. C. Parker in the Journal of American Folk Lore, October-December 



tion of the prophet's teaching. The Canadian Iroquois, however, 
received the revelations later than their New York brethren, and 
were longer under the influence of the older religion, which may 
account for the survival and use of the sun-disk. 

The writer has discovered several sun myths among the Seneca, 
the one which follows being related by Edward Cornplanter, 
Soson'dowa (''Great Night"), the recognized head preacher of 
the Gai'wiio' of Handsome Lake. Cornplanter is a Seneca, and a 
descendant of Gaiant'waka, the prophet's brother. 

The fragments of the cosmological myths which conclude this 
article are from a mass of ethnological and folk-lore data which it 
is hoped will shortly be edited and published. 


This happened in old times, when there were not many people. 
There were three brothers and they were not married. They were 
hunters and had spent their lives hunting. When the brothers were 
young they enjoyed the excitement of hunting; but as they grew 
older it did not give them so much pleasure. The youngest brother 
suggested that for new experiences they walk to the edge of the 
earth, where the sky comes down and touches the big sea of salt 
water. There is salt water west, and this world is an island. The 
other brothers thought the plan a good one ; and when they had 
prepared everything they started on the journey. They traveled a 
good many years and a good many things happened to'them. They 
always went straight westward. 

At last the brothers came to a place where the sun goes under the 
sky's edge. The sky bends down there and sinks into the water. 
They camped there for a month and watched the things that hap- 
pened there. They noticed how the sun got under the rim of the 
sky and went away quickly. Some men came there and tried to 
get under the edge of the sky, but it descended quickly and crushed 
them. There is a road there. Now they noticed that when the sky 
came up, the water sank lower; and that when the sky went in the 
water, the water rose higher. 

The younger brothers desired to pass under the rim of the sky 
when the sun slipped under on his road ; but the elder brother said 
that the happenings were too evilly mysterious, and that he was 
afraid. The younger brothers ran under the rim of the sky quickly, 
and the rim was very thick. They kept on the road, and water was 
on each side. They were afraid that the sky would come down and 


crush them. Now, the oldest brother, it is said, watched them ; 
and when he saw that nothing happened to injure his brothers, he 
began to run after them. The younger brotliers turned from their 
safe place to encourage him ; but the sky came down on the sun's 
road and crushed him, but they saw his spirit (notwai'sha") shoot 
by quickly. The brothers felt sad. 

On the other side of the sky everything is dilTerent, so it is said. 
Before the brothers was a large hill; and when they had ascended 
it, they saw a very large village in the distance. A man came run- 
ning toward them. He was in the distance ; but he came nearer, 
and he called out, "Come!" It was their elder brother. "How 
did you come so quickly, brother? " they asked. " We did not see 
you come." 

The brother answered only, " I was late." He passed by on a 

An old man came walking toward them. He was youthful and 
his body was strong, but his hair was long and white. He was an 
old man. His face was wise-looking, and he seemed a chief. 

" I am the father of the people in the Above-the-Sky-Place," he 
said. " Haweni'io' is my son. I wish to advise you because I have 
lived here a long time. I have always lived here, but Haweni'io' was 
born of the woman on the island. When you see Haweni'io', call 
quickly, ' Niawe'^'^skano"' !' If you fail to speak first, he will say, 
' You are mine,' and you will be spirits, as your brother is." 

The brothers proceeded and saw a high house made of white 
bark. They walked up the path to the door. A tall man stepped 
out quickly, and the brothers said, " Niawe'^'^skiino"' ! " and the 
great man said, " Doge"s', I have been watching you for a long 
time." The brothers entered the hotise. Now, when they were in 
the house, the man said, '' In what condition are your bodies ? " 
The brothers answered, " They are fine bodies." The great man 
answered, " You do not speak the truth. I am Haweni'io', and I 
know all about your bodies. One of you must lie down, and I will 
purify him, and then the other." 

One brother lay down, and Haweni'io' placed a small shell to his 
lips, and put it on the brother's mouth. He also tapped him on the 
neck, and sealed the shell with clay. He began to skin the brother. 
He took apart the muscles, and then scraped the bones. He took 
out the organs and washed them. Then Haweni'io' built the man 
again. He loosened the clay and rul^bed his neck. He did this with 
both brothers ; and they sat up, and said, " It seems as if we had 


slept." Haweni'io* said, '' Every power of your bodies is renewed. 
I will test you." 

The brothers followed Haweni'io' to a fine grove of trees sur- 
rounded by a thick hedge. All kinds of flowers were blooming 
outside. " My deer are here," said Haweni'io'. 

A large buck with wide antlers ran toward them. " He is the 
swiftest of my runners. Try and catch him," said Haweni'io'. 

The men ran after the deer, and rapidly overtook him. " He has 
given us good speed," the brothers said. They soon discovered that 
they had many surpassing abilities, and the great man tested them 
all on that day. 

They returned to the white lodge, and the brothers saw a messen- 
ger running toward them. Upon his wide chest was a bright ball of 
light. It was very brilliant. In some unknown language he shouted 
to Haweni'io' and dashed on. 

"Do you understand his words, or do you know that man?" 
asked Haweni'io'. " He is the sun, my messenger. Each day he 
brings me news. Nothing from east to west escapes his eye. He 
has just told me of a great war raging between your people and 
another nation. Let us look down on the earth and see what is 

They all went to a high hill in the middle of the country, and 
looked down through a hole where a tree had been uprooted. They 
saw two struggling bands of people and all the houses burning. 
They could hear people crying and yelling their war cries. 

" Men will always do this," said Haweni'io', and then they went 
down the hill. 

The brothers stayed a long time in the ui)i)er world, and learned 
so much that they never could tell it all. Sometimes they looked 
down on the earth and saw villages in which no one lived. They 
knew that they were waiting for people to be born and live there. 
In the upper world they saw villages, likewise, awaiting the coming 
of people. Haweni'io' told them a good many things, and after a 
time told a messenger to lead them to the path that the sun took 
when he came out on the earth in the morning. They followed the 
messenger and came out on the earth. They waited until the 
sun went over the earth and had gone to the west. Again then 
they went under the edge of the sky in the east, and came out in 
their country again. It was night, and they slc]-)t on the ground. 
In the morning they saw their own village, and it was overgrown 
with trees. They followed a path through the woods and came 


upon another village. Their own people were there, and they went 
into a council house and talked. They told their story ; and no one 
knew them except their own sister, who was an aged woman. 

" The war of which }uu speak took place fifty years ago," the 
sister said. 

The brothers did not care for the earth now, but wished them- 
selves back in the upper world. They were not like other men, for 
they never grew tired. They were very strong and could chase 
animals and kill tliem with their hands. Nothing could kill them, 
neither arrows nor disease. After a while, both were struck by 
lightning, and then they were both killed. 

It seems quite likely that there are modern features in this legend ; 
but my informant assured me that the portion relating to the sky 
and the sun was very old. He said also that he had always heard 
the upper world described as related in the legend. Pie added that 
the sun loved the sound of w^ar, and would linger in his morning 
journey to see a battle, but that after he reached midheaven he 
traveled at his usual speed. 

Mrs Asher Wright, wdio spoke Seneca perfectly, and who labored 
as a missionary among them for tifty years, recorded two Seneca 
myths as they had been related to her by Esquire Johnson, an old 
Seneca chief. One describes the origin of good and evil, and says 
that the sun was made by the Good-minded spirit from the face of 
his mother. That legend makes the tirst woman the mother of 
the twins. The second manuscript, dated 1876, relates practically 
the same story, but mentions the Sky-woman as having I)orne first 
a daughter, who became, without any knowledge of man, the mother 
of the twins. The mother, having died at their birth, was buried by 
her mother. The Sky-woman, the grandmother, then turned and 
addressed the Good-minded spirit, according to Esquire Johnson, 
quoted by Mrs Wright, as follows: 

" Now you must go and seek your father. When you see him, 
you must ask him to give you power." Pointing to the east, she 
said, " He lives in that direction. You must keep on until you 
reach the limits of the Island, and then upon the waters until you 
reach a high mountain which rises up out of the water, and which 
you must climb to the summit. There you will see a wonderful 
being sitting on the highest peak. You must say, ' I am your son.' " 

The " wonderful being " appears from the succeeding text to be 
the sun, although not specifically so named. 

^^'e thus have three conflicting ideas presented — the sun as the 


messenger of the Creator and as the patron of war, as the face of 
the first mother, and as the father of mankind of earthly origin, 
although this latter conclusion may be disputed by some for lack of 
a definite reference. 

This leads us to the fact that Iroquois mythology in its present 
state has l)cen derived from several sources. This has been caused, 
without doubt, by the policy of adopting the remnants of conquered 
tribes. Thus we may expect that in Iroquois mythology are the sur- 
vivals of early Huron, Neutral, Erie, and Andaste elements. It is 
now possible to trace only the Huron. Algonquian elements came 
in through the Delaware, the Chippewa, the Shawnee, the Munsee, 
the Mahikan, and possibly the Nanticoke. It is not difficult to trace 
Siouan influence. 

The writer has been able to trace some of the influencing ele- 
ments to their sources, but it is nevertheless admitted that the prob- 
lem of critically sifting and comparing Iroquois myths is a delicate 

Related by Emily Tallchief, his great great granddaughter 


" Now these stories are true and came to Solomon Obail from 
Cornplanter, and Solomon, my father, told me. 

" The Cornplanter reservation Senecas often traveled by canoes 
down the Allegany river to Pittsburgh. On a certain occasion 
Cornplanter went with a party of canoeists down the Allegany to 
Pittsburgh. While on his journey one of the paddlers sang 
Woine'owi as he paddled. Now as he sang the party was startled 
by a voice that called from the cliff above, ' Halt ye ! ' The pad- 
dler grounded the canoe and Cornplanter went ashore, where, 
ascending the clifif, he found a number of Indians gathered about 
a tree to which a white man was bound. ' So now Cornplanter,' 
said the chief of the band, ' I have called you to kill this man. You 
may now do as you please with him and we will be satisfied.' 
Cornplanter drew forth his long lumling knife and feeling of its 
sharp edge said ' So I may do as I wish. Truly then I shall do 
so.' So saying he rushed toward the man with upraised knife and 
brought it down with a flourish. The man was not injured but 
instead stepi)ed out from the tree free, for Cornplanter's knife had 
severed the thongs. ' Now,' said Cornplanter, after some conver- 
sation with the man, ' I will hire a guide to take this man back to 


his home in Philadelphia.' A warrior accepted the commission and 
guided the prisoner safely back to his home where he found him to 
be a man of prominence, a chief among his people." 

" So I say this," added Mrs Tallchief, " to show that my grand- 
father was a good man, just and kind. Because of these qualities 
he became influential." 


" Now during the war of the thirteen fires against the king of 
Great Britain, we, the Iroquois, were loyal to our old allies, the 
British. We fought for them, but, alas for us they were beaten. 
Now Washington, the great leader of the thirteen fires, was deter- 
mined to punish us for our part in the war, for he did not realize 
that we were btit keeping our treaties with the British when we 
' fought. So Washington said, ' Depart from among us and go to 
the west far from the white people." But Cornplantcr said, ' Not 
so. We are determined not to move. We have long lived here and 
intend to continue in our own territory as long as we are able to 
hold it.' ' Not so,' answered Washington, ' you fought against us 
and therefore you must move on to the west and if you refuse we 
shall compel you.' ' Then,' answered Cornplanter, ' we will resist 
you by force of arms. If you win we will have to go, otherwise we 
will remain where we now are.' 

" Cornplanter returned from Washington to his people and 
spread the news. Quickly it traveled among all the Indians to the 
south, the east and the west. All were very angry and said, ' We 
will fight. W4ien the white man tries to move us as they please it 
is time that we moved a few white men.' Then the western Indians 
began to massacre the settlers. The news came to Washington. 
' It is a mistake to encourage another Indian war,' he said and then 
sent for Cornplanter. ' I want to settle our difficulties,' said he, 
' and I wish peace. I do not wish war, therefore you, Cornplanter, 
must pacify your people.' ' I care not to meddle further with mat- 
ters,' said Cornplanter. ' But you must go,' insisted Washington, 
' yoti are the only man who can restore peace and good will.' Thus 
it was that Cornplanter accepted the commission. He returned 
home and collecting a party of chiefs sent abroad declarations of 
peace. The delegation went through Sandusky into the farther 
west. There Cornplanter called a council and said, ' We must be 
peaceful with the white men and cease tormenting them.' Now the 
tribe was a very fierce one and was very angry that Corni)lanter 


advised peace. They mixed poison with the food which they 
served the delegation and a number died. Cornplanter also was 
made severely ill. Then Cornplanter became very angry and calling 
a council said, ' Vou have acted with treachery. Now I cease to 
plead. I now command that you let the white people live in peace. 
Do not kill another one. If you do I will bring the whole Five 
Nations against you and with a great army of white men will kill 
every one of you. The Senecas are the greatest nation of all na- 
tions and whatever they plan they do. We are always successful 
and always victorious in sport, debate or battle. So beware.' Now 
the western Indians councilled among themselves and said, ' We 
must hastily agree for if the Senecas come against us we surely will 
be defeated." " 


" Gaiant'wake", the great chief, once went to Philadelphia. 

" ' How do your people procure food? ' asked a white man, a 

" ' We are hunters,' answered the chief. 

"'Have you not observed our great fields of corn and grain?' 
asked the white man, ' and did you know that we never have famines 
as you do? Why do your people not cultivate gardens of size and 
till large fields of grain?' 

" ' My people used to do so,' said the chief, ' and not many years 
ago when they dwelt in the valley of the Genesee. Now I think 
that I will encourage this practice again.' 

" This conversation so impressed the chief that when he returned 
he spoke of the matter before the councils and exhorted people in 
private to plant more and hunt less. Because of this he received 
the name of The Planter, but the whites called him Cornplanter." 



a as in father, bar ; Germ, haben 

a the same sound prolonged 

a as in what; Germ, man 

a as in hat, man, ran 

ai as in aisle, as i in mine, bind ; Germ. Hain 

au as ou in out, as ow in hozu; Germ. Hans 

c as sh in shall ; Germ, sch in schclleii ; cio-sho as in slimv 

d pronounced with the tip of the tongue touching the upper teeth 

e as e in they, as a in may; Fr. ne 

e as in met, get, then; Germ, denn; Fr. sienne 

g as in gig; Germ, geben; Fr. gout 

h as in has, he; Germ, haben 

i as in pique, machine; ie as ye in Enghsh yea 

i the same sound prolonged io as yo in you 

i as in pick, pit 

j as in judge 

k as in kick, kin 

n as in no, nun, not 

n as ng in ring, sing 

o as in note, boat 

q as ch in Germ, ich 

s as in see, sat 

t pronounced with the tip of the tongue on the upper teeth 

u as in rule; Germ, du; Fr. ou in doux 

u as in rut, shut 

w as in zvit, ivin 

y as in yes, yet 

dj as j in judge 

tc as ch in church; tci-chce as in cheese 

" marks nasalized vowels as a", e", e", o", a", ai", etc. 

' indicates an aspiration or soft emission of the breadth which is 

initial or final, thus 'h, e"', o', etc. 

' marks a sudden closure of the glottis preceding or following 

a sound, thus 'a, o', a', a', etc. 

' marks the accented syllable of a word 
t and /; in this system are always pronounced separately 




(For key to pronunciation see page 139) 

Adanida'osha (cooperative labor), 39 

Adek\ve'o"ge (green corn thanksgiving), 43 

AdTstowa'e (feather wearing; name apphed to conser- 

vative Indians by the more radical), 14 
meaning snaky headed), 5 
thanking or cheer songs), 41 ; figure, 84 
women's dance), loi 

Ado'" we" 
Awe'yondo' gawen 

Dagw un'noyaent 
Degi'ya'go" oa"no' 







Ende'ka gaa"kwa 


Gahadi yago 

the funeral address), 107 

the wind spirit), 119 

white beaver), 119 

Thanksgiving), 103 

other ceremony), 121 

Bufifalo Society), 125 

exploding wren), 119 

grassy place), 75 

the corn, bean and squash triad ; the word 

means. They sustain us), 39, 54, 86 
Seneca name of Pittsburgh) 
tree), 75 
Open Door, or Door Keeper, name of 

Seneca war sachem, once held by Gen. 

Ely S. Parker), 12 
place of burnt houses ; the Seneca name 

for Cornplanter village), 20, 52 
ghost talker), 68 
truly a reply), 113 
daytime brilliant orb, the sun), 91 
it was once that way ; the closing word of 

each section of the Gai' wiio') 
the trotting dance), 82, loi 
fetid banks), Cattaraugus 
all, everyone, entirely), 33 
at the wood's edge, a ceremony), 123 
The Planter, commonly called Corn- 
planter. A Seneca pine tree chief name. 

The half brother of Handsome Lake), 23, 

24, 44, 50 































(an r'dos ceremony), 123 

(the sharp point; a ceremony), 123 

(meaning the good message ; pronounced as 

if spelled guy-we-you), 5, 6, 26, 43 
(the Christian religion), 57 
(husk false face), 129 
(to copulate), 73 

(she is a gluttonous beast, a name), 74 
(great bowl game), 41 
(midwinter ceremony), 81 
(the Eagle dance song), 124 
(the harvest thanksgiving ceremony), 21, 

(Handsome or Beautiful Lake, the title of 

the sachem name held by the prophet), 5, 

18, 22, 46, 80 
(night song), 1 16 
(Kittle Hangs, a name), 74 
(name of Onondaga), 76 
(house of the tormentor), 56 
(fetid water, Seneca name for their village 

near present site of Avon, Livingston co., 

N. Y.), 9. 78 
(in the rapids, name of Warren, Pa.), 20 
(Ga-nun-da-se, meaning a tozvii nc^v or 

Newtown. Name of non-Christian 

Seneca village on Cattaraugus reservation) 

(place of a new town; Seneca name of 

Geneva), 79 
(long house people), 7 
(witchcraft), 2/ 
(compelling charm: charm used to com])el 

persons to obey the charm holder), 29, 30 
(tobacco thrown down, " Dipped "' Tobacco, 

a woman's name), 24 
(a lying tale, slander), t,/ 
(drunken) . 20 

(Large Talker, a name), 74 
(jug shaking dance), lOi 
( an exclamation in the gane'wo song) , 85, 




Hadid j i'y ontwus 






Hodianok'doo" He/d' 






(ha-nis-se'-o-no, the devil), 18 

(new year announcers), 82 

(the new year ceremony), 75 

(False Face company), 127 

(they are messengers; the four angels), 19, 

(the thunderers), 98 

(male), yz 

(Hai-yon'-went-ha, a sachemship titlo 

meaning, he has lost it and searches, 

knowing ivhere to find it. The Seneca 

name for Hiawatha) 
(new year ceremonial officers), 82 
(exalted name, the word applied to a 

chief), 44 
(the son-in-law of Handsome Lake), 23 
(good ruler, God ; the name mostly used by 

the Christian Seneca), 48, 133 
(tobacco throwing ceremony), 121 
(a clairvoyant), 49 
(the Thunderer), 104 

(the Creator), 19, 48 

(white man), 20 

(a nest), 47 

(overseer of the ceremonies), 411, 421 

(the guardian company), 116 

(company of charm holders; note that 

" tci " is pronounced as '' chee " in 

cheese) , 1 19 
(nol)le l)orn, good in character, applied as a 

title to sachems. The Mohawk form 

Rhoya'ne' is sometimes translated 

" lord "), 9, 22 
(a charm society), 121, 122 
(a great horned serpent), 119 
(elves of p\gmies), 119 
(New \'oice, a man's name), 76 
(small bundle of magic substance), 29 
(great naked bear or mammoth bear, a 

mythical l)cast), 28; footnote, 40; 119 































(bear, bear ceremony), 125 

(thanks are given), 36 

(thank you, you are strong), a greeting, 133 

(Httle water) a niecHcine powder, 116 

(so be it, or it is weH, " all right '"), 22 

(name of a month), 86 

(nis-ko'-wuk-ni, the moon of midwinter), 

6, 53 

(spirit), 133 

(a dance, or society) 

(the veil over the world), 67 

(Sunsliine, a name), 117 

(Pudding Dry, a man's name), 24 

(the death chant, a ceremony), 21, 26, 50, 

(river beautiful, name api)lied to the .Alle- 
gany river), 20 

(ceremonial officers, "buffalo robed"), 81 

(whiskey or rum), 9, 27 

(real men, Iroquois), 18, 45 

(Ohgwe''-ohwe-ka', literally, men beings — 
real — emphatically so), 6 

(witch poison), 29, /2 

(meaning, upon the hills) 

(Great Feather dance, the chief religious 
dance), 2=,, 42 

(wampum ) , ^y 

(sharp bone charm), 119 

(it is blazing, a ceremony), 123 

(road bad : a rough road), 69 

(dried hand charm), 119 

(pronounced Sa-go-ye'-wa-t'ha' ; means, he 
keeps them awake. Name of Red Jacket, 
a Seneca leader and orator), 68 

(you come to eat), 36 

(early in the morning), 6 

(Se-dwa'-go-wfi'-ne') Teacher-great, name 
applied to Handsome Lake, 71 ; footnote, 

53 ; ('7 
(He resitrreets ; Christ), 67 
(the tormentor, devil), 48 



















Wa''da Tadinion'nio'o' 










(a man's name), 57 

(the Eagle ceremony), 124 

(the false face spirit chief), 128 

(the death herald), 106 

(Seneca name of Owen Black Snake), 19 

(strength, health), 133 

(night shining orb, the moon), 92 

(name of Handsome Lake's grandson and 

one of his successors, the grandfather of 

Gen. Ely S. Parker. English name was 

James Johnson), 12, 19 
(S'o-son'-do-wa, Night-Great, the teacher of 

Handsome Lake's religious code. His 

English name is Edward Cornplanter, 

q. v.), 5, 16, 19, 80 
(Awl Breaker, sometimes called Needle 

Breaker. The name of a Seneca chief), 


(a masculine proper name), 60 

(heaven world), 69 

(pigeon dance), 82 

(a ceremony), 123 

(grandfather), 91 

(cornplanting ceremony), loi 

(maple thanksgiving), 102 

(to throw up the paddle, meaning, "it is 
finished," a ceremonial term), 82 

(the death feast), no 

(Sioux; means also warlike), 103 

(month of May), 20 

( a woman), 33 

(a thieving woman), 39 

(the women s song ceremony), 21, 26 

(a society having animal charms; the " So- 
ciety of Mystic Animals": see I'Mos), 

(pygmy dance ceremony), 120 

(she commits abortion), 30 


Abortion, 30; 30 (footnote) 

Air regulator, 67 

Allegany, 5, 6, 7, 15 

Allegany Seneca, 15 

Alphabet, 139 

Anecdotes of Cornplanter, 136 

Animal totem, 39; societies, 39; 40 
(footnote), 113; ordered dis- 
banded, 114; are ancient, 115; ta- 
bued, 115 

Authorized teachers, 5 

Avon, 9, 78 

Bear, great naked, 119 

Bear, mammoth, 28 

Bear society, 125 

Beauchamp, Dr William M., quoted, 

Beaver, white, a charm, 119 
Bible believers, 64 
Blacksnake, Owen, 19 
Blue panther, 119 
Bluesky, William, 8 
Boasting, denounced, 2)7 
Buffalo Creek reservation treaty, 7, 

64, 78 
Buffaloes, sacred, 43 
Buffalo society, 125; dance of, plate 

Bundle, magic, 29 

Cattaraugus, 5, 6 

Cattaraugus, Seneca, 7, 15 

Ceremony of herb gathering, 54 

Ceremony, New Year {sec Mid- 
winter), 75 

Ceremonies, special, 103 

Charm, members, 119 

Charms, witch, 28; Seneca name, 
30; 30 (footnotes); corn, 54; so- 
ciety for, 119; good and evil, 120 

Children, punishment of, Z2> '• Hand- 
some Lake's love of, 33 (foot- 

note) ; treatment of, 34 ; warnings 
of, 34; sin of defaming, 3^', hospi- 
tality toward, 36; destitute, 36 

Christ, section 74, 67 

Christian Indians, 6, 14 

Ciiristian influence, 11 

Civil war, 13 

Clairvoyant, 49 

Cold Spring, 7, 12, 46, 76 

Columbus, Christopher, 18 

Command to preach, 26 

Cooperation, 39 

Conservative Indians, ideas, 14 

Converts, 6, 7 

Corn bug, 119 

Cornplanter creek, 20 

Cornplanter, Edward, photograph, 
plate 2, 5, 6, 8; quoted, 13; 132 

Cornplanter (sec also Gyantwaka or 
Gaiantwaka), 11 

Cornplanter village, 12, 20, 61 

Cornplanting thanksgiving, 54 

Corn, spirit, 47; medicine, 54; plant- 
ing of, 54; drawing, plate 12 

Customs changed, 56 

Customs, mourning, 107 

Creator, 18, 19, 21, 22, 25, 26, 27 to 
So; controversy with devil, 48 

Dances, 39: four sanctioned, 41, 51, 

Dark dance, 119 

Daughter of Handsome Lake, 22 
Dead man reviews, 24 
Dearborn, General, letter from, 10 
Death chant, 21, 126; drawing, plate 

Death, coming of, a legend, 105 . 
Death feast, 57, 126 
Deer, sacred, 43 
Devil. loi 
Discoverv of America, 16 




Discussion between good and evil 

spirits, 48 
Diviner, 49 
Division of Iroquois, religious, 13, 

55, 55 (footnote), 57 
Dog, {see White dog), 66 
Drunkenness, 9, 10, 20, 45, 54 
Dry hand, 119 

Eagle, society of, 124 

Education, 38 

Effects of Handsome Lake's religion, 

10, 11; discussion of, 14 
Effigies, 131 
Elves, 119 

Emotion, religious, 6 
End of world, 44; signs of, 57; by 

fire, 59 
Evil of drink, 54, 61 
Evil spirit {sec also Devil), s6, 59, 


Fairies, 119 

False Face company, 127 ; ceremony, 

Family life, 2>^, 23,; lack of children, 

35; meals, 36; picture of, plate 4 • 
Fees for healing, 56 
Finger nail parings, 120 
Five evils, the, 17, 18 
Folk cults, 116; influence, 130 
Four messengers, 24, 25, yy 
Frauds against Iroquois, 10 
Funeral customs, 57, 107; address, 


Gaenendasaga, 12, 79 

Gaiant'waka, 23, 50 

Gai'wiio', 5: time of preaching, 6; 
present form, 7; as a divine mes- 
sage, 26 

Gane'o"wo° ceremony, 95 

Ganio'dai'io {see also Handsome 
Lake), 9, 18, 19; teachings of, 20, 
80, 114 {see glossary) 

Gano°'wages, 12, 78 

Gardening, methods, 39 (footnote) 

Gibson, Chief John, 6 

Glossary of Seneca words 

God {see Cr&diXor, Great Ruler, Good 

Godiont, 41 

Good Hunter, 117 

Good Minded {sec Good Spirit), 15, 

Good Spirit (also Great Ruler and 
Good Minded), 15, 16, 19, 21, 105, 

Grand River, 6, 131 
Great Message, 27 
Green corn ceremony, 43 
Graves at Grand River, Ontario, 

plate 6 

Handsome Lake, teachings of, 5 ; 
biography, 9; successful ministry, 
10; value of his teaching, 11; 
revolutionized social life, 11; fail- 
ures, 11; residence at Tonawanda, 
11; ideas from Bible, il; death, 13, 
80; method of thinking, 21; sick- 
ness, 21; reviled, 47; influence of, 

Handsome Lake's teachings, 27, 80, 

Handsome Lake's monument, plate 9 

Handsome Lake preaching, draw-ing, 
plate 15 

Harrington, M. R., mentioned, 128 

Harrison, Gen. William H., 66 (foot- 

Harvest song, 21 

Heaven, see Three brothers, 134 

Herald of death, 119 

Herbs, medicine song of, 55) healing, 

Honon'diont, 41, 42 

Horned serpent, 119 

House of Torment (also of pun- 
isher), 62: description, 63, 64, 70 

Hunters, father and son, 52; mur- 
dered, 52 

Huron, introduce the I"dos, 123 

Hurricane, spirit, drawing, plate 19 

Husk false faces, 129 

Idea of soul, 61 

r'dos ceremony, photograph of, 

plate 21 
Indian religious communities, 7 
Insanit\-, 47 



Invocation over corn, 54 
Iroquois Confederacy, 10 
Iroquois disheartened, 10 

Jacket, John, 7, 8 

Jealousy, results of, 45 (footnote) 
Jefferson, President Thomas, men- 
tioned, 10 
Journey over sky road, 62 

Key to pronunciation, lyy 
Kittle, Chief Delos, quoted, 127 

Lay, Skidmore, ceremony related hy, 

Life of Handsome Lake, q 

Life substance, 65 

Little water company, 116 

Logan, Chief Frank, 5 

Long house, picture, plate i ; at New- 
town, plate 3 ; at Tonawanda, 
plate 3 ; at Onondaga, plate 5 ; at 
Pine Woods, Cattaraugus, plate 5 ; 
Upper Cayuga, Grand River, Ont., 
plate 6; Seneca, Canada, plate 7; 
Onondaga, Canada, plate 8; en- 
virons of Cayuga, plate 8. 

Magic animals, no 

Magic bundles, 20 

Marriage, 31, 32 

Masks, spirit. 123 

Medicine outfit, picture. 118 

Midwinter ceremony, 6: sanctioned, 

Milky Way, 62 (footnote) 
Moon dance, 103 

Morgan, Lewis H.. 12; quoted, 113 
Morning song. 51 
Mourning customs, 57, 107 
Murderer discovered, drawing, plate 


New religion, 5. 13, 115 
Newtown, 7 
New World, 47 
Night song, 116 

Obail, Henry, 11, 80 (footnote) 
Old people, 35 

Oneidas. Canadian, 8; inentiDiied, 14 
Oneg'a (rum), 27 
Onondaga, 7, 12, 14, 76, 78 
Ostowii'go'wa, 42 

Otters, society of, 121 ; drawing, 
plate 2;^ 

Parker, Gen. Ely S., 12; descendant 

of prophet, 12 
Phonetic system, key to, I3() 
Pittsburgh, 20 
Poison, secret, 20 

Poverty, esteemed 15, 63 (footnote) 
Progressive Indians, 14 
Prophet, given power to sec in earth, 

Punishment for evil, 71, 72, 74 
Purification, 77 (footnote) 
Pygmy society, no; ojiening cere- 
mony, 120 

Recitation, second day, t,^; third 
day, 60 

Red Jacket (scc also Sagoyewatha ) 
accused, 66 (footnote) ; punish- 
ment of, 68 (section 95) 

Religion, Indian, 15 

Repentance, song of, 20 

Reservations, 5, 14 

Revival, Indian religious, 6 

Kites and ceremonies, notes (jii. Si 

Ixoad, narrow, 74 

Road, sky, 62. 60, 70 

St Regis, 7. 14 

.Secret medicine for corn, 54 

Secret medicine societies. n3; 
tabued. 115 

Seneca (sec also Allegany. Cattarau- 
gus and Tonawanda). 5 

Serpent, n; horned, iiQ 

.Sharp legs. 119 

Sick man, drawing, pl.ite 11 

Sickness of Handsome Lake, 22 

Sins, 44 

.Sisters of Diohe"ko". 126 

Slander, s~ 

Societies. 40. 40 (footnote), 50, 113, 
it6, 130 

Society of Friends, 10 



Social relations of mankind, 36 

Song, lost, 50 

Sorrow, 57 

Sos'heowa, 12, 19 

Soson'dowa (see also Edward Corn- 
planter), 16 

Soul, ideas of, 61 

S])irit of the corn, 47; drawing, 
plate 12 

Stevens, Henry, 8 

Stinginess, 62 

Stone giant mask, 127 

Strawberries, feast, 25 ; medicine, 25 

Sun dance, 103 

Sun niytlis, 131 

Taa'wonyas (Awl Breaker), 23 

Tlianksgiving, 51; song, 84 

Three brothers, a legend, 132 

Thunder dance, 103 

Tobacco, 49 

Tonawanda, 11, 12, 47, 68, 76 

Tonawanda Seneca, 14 

Tonwiisas, drawing of ceremony, 

plate 10 
Tormentor, 48 
Translation, 8 
Trouble, time of, 20; drawing, plate 

Tuscarora, 14 

Unbelief in Gai'wiio', S7 

Underworld, 43 

Wampum, 6, ^7 
Warren, Pa., 20 
War in heaven, 48 
Warriors' charm, 30 (footnote) 
Washington, George, 66, 137 
White dog ceremony, 85 ; photo- 
graph, plate 20 
WHiite race, how it came to America, 

16; Seneca name for, 3 (footnote), 

20; economics of, 38 
Wiiipping of foolish women, 46; 

drawing, plate 13 
Wife, treatment of, 32 
Wind spirit, 119; drawing, plate K) 
Winter, ceremonies (see Midwinter) 
Witchcraft, 27; 27-29 (footnote), 

Witch doctors, 29 (footnote) 
Women's dance, 21; drawing of, 

plate 16 
Women's society, 126 
Women's song, 21 
Women, wise ways for, 37: foolish, 

whipped, 46 
Wren, exploding, a charm, i ig 
Wright, Rev. Asher, 7; Mrs Wright, 


New York State Education Department 
New York State Museum 
John M. Clarke, Director 

Packages will be sent prepaid except when distance or weight renders the 
same impracticable. On lo or more copies of any one publication 20% 
discount will be given. Editions printed are only large enough to meet 
special claims and probable sales. When the sale copies are exhausted, 
the price for the few reserve copies is advanced to that charged by second- 
hand booksellers, in order to limit their distribution to cases of special 
need. Such prices are inclosed in [ ]. All publications are in paper covers, 
unless binding is specified. Checks or money orders should be addressed 
and payable to New York State Education Department. 

Museum annual reports 1847-date. All in print to 1894, 50c a volume, 75c in 
cloth; i&g^-diitc, sold in sets only; 75c each for octavo volumes; price of 
quarto volumes on application. ^ 

These reports are made up of the reports of the Director, Geologist, Paleontologist, 
Botanist and Entomologist, and museum bulletins and memoirs, issued as advance sections 
of the reports. , / 

Director's annual reports 1904-date. 

1004. 138P. 201--. 1909. 2.500. 4ipl. 2 maps. 4 charts. Out of print 

1905. io2p. 23pl. 30c. 1910. 28op. ii. 42pl. 50;. 

1906. i86p. 4ipl. 25c. igii. 2i8p. 40pl. 50c. 

1907. 2i2p. 63pl. 50c. 1912. In press. 
J908. 234p. 39pl. map. 400. 

These reports cover the reports of the Stat3 Geilo:;ist and of the State Paleontologist- 
Bound also with the museum reports of which they form a part. 

Geologist's annual reports i88i-date. Rep'ts i, 3-13, 17-date:, 8vo; 2, 
14-16, 4to. 

In 1898 the paleontologic work of the State was made distinct from the geologic and was 
reported separately from 1899-1903. The two departments were reunited in 1904, and are 
now reported in the Director's report. 

The annual reports of the original Natural History Survey, 1837-41, are out of print. 
Reports 1-4, 1881-84, were published only in separate form. Of the sth report 4 I>ages 
were reprinted in the 39th museum report, and a supplement to the 6th report was included 
in the 40th museum report. The 7th and subsetjuent reports are included in th 41st and 
following museum reports, except that certain lithograohic plates in the iith report (1891) 
and 13th (1893) are omitted from the 45th and 47th museum reports. 

Separate volumes of the following only are available. 

Report Price Report Price 

17 $.75 21 $.40 

18 .75 22 .40 

19 -40 23 .45 

20 .50 [See Director's annual reports] 

Paleontologist's annual reports 1899-date. 

See first note under Geologist's annual reports. 

Bo.ind also with museum reports of which they form a part. Reports for 1899 and 1900 
may b-:- had for 20c each. Those for 1901-3 were issued as bulletins. In 1904 combined 
with the Director's report. 

Entomologist's annual reports on the injurious and other insects of the 
State of New York 1882-date. 

Reports 3-20 bound also with museum reports 40-46, 48-58 of which they form a part. 
Since 1898 these reports have been issued as bulletins. Reports 3-4, 17 are out of print, 
other reports with prices are: 



12 (1892) 

IS. 2V. 





t Price 




■ 30 




• IS 











21 (Bui 

104) S . 25 

22 ( ' 

no) .25 

^^ \ \ 

124) .75 

24 ( ' 

134) .35 

25 ( ' 

141) .35 

26 ( " 

147) .35 

27 ( ' 

155) .40 

28 In 


Report Price 

n $.25 

12 .25 

13' Out of print 

14 (Bui. 23) .20 

15 ( " 31) .15 

16 ( " 36) .25 
18 ( " 64) .20 
IQ ( " 67) .15 
20 ( " 97) -40 

Reports 2, 8-12 may also be obtained bound in cloth at 250 each in addition to the price 
given above. 

Botanist's annual reports 1867-date. 

Bound also with museum reports 21-date of which they form a part; the first Botanist's 
report appeared in the 21st museum report and is numbered 21. Reports 21-24, 29, 31-41 
were not published separately. 

Separate reports for 1871-74, 1876, 1888-98 are out of print. Report for 1899 maybe had 
for 20c: 1900 for soc. Since 1901 these reports have been issued as bulletins. 

Descriptions and illustrations of edible, poisonous and unwholesome fungi of New York 
have also been published in volumes i and 3 of the 48th (1894) museum report and in volume 
I of the 49th (1895), 51st (1897), 52d (1898), 5.4th (1900), 55th (1901), in volume 4 of the 
S6th (1902), in volume 2 of the S7th (1903), in volume 4 of the 58th (1904), in volume 2 
of the S9th (1905), in volume i of the 60th (1906), in volume 2 of the 6ist (1907), 62d 
(1908), 63d (1909), 64th (1910), 6sth (1911) reports. The descriptions and illustrations of 
edible and unwholesome species contained in the 49th, 51st and 52d reports have been re- 
vised and rearranged, and, combined with others more recently prepared, constitute Museum 
Memoir 4. 

Museum bulletins 1887-date. Svo. To advance subscribers, $2 a year, or $1 
d^ year for division (i) geology, economic geology, paleontology, mineralogy; 

50c each for division (2) general zoology, archeology, miscellaneous, (3) botany, 

(4) entomology. 

Bulletins are grouped in the list on the following pages according to divisions. 
• The divisions to which bulletins belong are as follows: 

no Entomo'.ogj^ 

111 Geology 

112 Economic Geology 

113 Archeology 

114 Geology 

116 Botany 

117 Archeology 

118 Geology 

119 Economic Geology 

1 20 " 

121 Director's report for 1907 

122 Botany 

123 Economic Geology 

124 Entomology 

125 Archeology 

126 Geology 

127 " 

129 Entomology 

130 Zoology 

131 Botany 

132 Economic Geology 

133 Director's report for 1908 

134 Entomology 

135 Geology 

136 Entomology 

137 Geology 

139 Botany 

140 Director's report for 1909 

141 Entomology 

142 Economic Geology 

144 Archeology 

145 Geology 

146 " 

147 Entomology 

148 (ieology 

149 Director's report for 1910 

150 Botany 
IS I Economic Geology 
152 Geology 

154 ^ " 

155 Entomology 

157 Botany 

158 Director's report for 1911 

1 59 Geology 

160 " 

161 Economic Geology 

I I Zoology 

2 Botany 

3 Economic Geology 

4 Mineralogy 

5 Entomology 

7 Economic Geology 

8 Botany- j 

9 Zoology 

10 Economic Geology 

13 Entomoiogy 

14 Geology 

15 Economic Geology 

16 Archeology^ 

17 Economic Geology 

18 Archeology 

19 Geology 

20 Entomology 

21 Geology 

22 Archeology 

23 Entomology 

25 Botany 

26 Entomology 

28 Botany 

29 Zoology 

30 Economic Geology 

31 Entomology 

32 Archeology 

33 Zoology 

34 Geology 
3 5 Economic Geology 
36 Entomology 
3 7 

38 Zoology 

39 Paleontology 

40 Zoology 

41 Archeology 

42 (ieolo-;y 

43 Zoology 

44 Economic Geology 

45 Paleontology 

46 Entomology 

48 Geology 

49 Paleontology 

50 -Archeology 

51 Zoology 

52 Paleontology 

53 Entomology 

54 Botany 

55 Archeology 

56 Geology 
5 7 Entomology 

58 Mineralogy 

59 Entomology 

60 Zoology 

61 Economic Geology 

62 Miscellaneous 

63 Geology 

64 Entomology 

65 Paleontology 

66 Miscellaneous 

67 Botany 

68 Entomology 

69 Paleontology 

70 Mineralogy 

7 1 Zoology 

72 Entomology 

73 Archeology 

74 Entomology 

75 Botany 

76 Entomology 

77 Geology 

78 Archeology 

79 Entomology 

80 Paleontology 

81 Geology 

83 " 

85 Economic Geology 

86 Entomology 

87 Archeology 

88 Zoology 

89 .-Xrcheology 

90 Paleontology 

91 Zoology 

92 Paleontology 

93 Economic Geology 

94 Botany 

95 Geology 

97 Entomology 

98 Mineralogy 

99 Paleontology 

100 Economic Geology 

1 01 Paleontology 

102 Economic Geology 

103 Entomology 

104 " 

105 Botany 

106 Geology 

107 Geology and Paleontology 162 G;o!ogy 

108 .Archeology 163 Archeology 

109 Entomology 


Bulletins are also found with the annual reports of the museum as follows: 

















57. V. 







64, V. 2 






57, V. 

1, pt 2 






64, V. 2 






57, V. 

I, pt I 






64, V. 2 






S8, V. 


1 19-21 





64, V. 2 

26-3 I 





58, V. 







64, V. 2 






58, V. 







6s, V. 2 






58, V. 







65, V. 2 






58, V. 







65, V. 2 






S8, V. 







65, V. I 






58, V. 







65, V. I 






S8, V. 







6s, V. I 






58, V. 







65, V. 2 






58. V. 







65, V. I 






58, V. 











58. V. 












59, V. 







49, V. 3 






59, V. 







53, V. 2 






59. V. 







57. V. 3 






59. V. 







5 7. V. 4 






59. V. 






8, pt 


59. V. 3 






59. V. 






8, pt 


59, V. 4 






60, V. 






9. pt 


60, V. 4 






60, V. 






9. pt 


62, V. 4 





Pt I 

109, 1 10 

60, V. 







60, V. 5 

7 2 




Pt 2 


00, V. 






I I 

6 1 , V. 3 





I 12 

60, V. 


I 46 




I 2 

6^, V. 3 




I , 

Pt 2 


60, V. 







63. V. 4 






60, V. 






14. V. 


65, V. 3 





pt 2 


60, V. 






lA. V. 


65, V. 4 




I , 

pt I 

The figures at the beginning of each entry in the following list indicate its number as a 
museum bulletin. 

Geology and Paleontology. 14 Kemp, J. F. Geology of Moriah and West- 
port Townships, Essex Co. N. Y., with notes on the iron mines. 38p. 
il. 7pl. 2 maps. Sept. 1895. Free. 

19 Merrill, F. J- H. Guide to the Study of the Geological Collections of 
the New York State Museum. i64p. i iqpl. map. Nov. 1898. Out of print. 

21 Kemp, J. F. Geology of the Lake Placid Region. 24p. ipl. map. Sept. 
1898. Free. 

34 Cumings, E. R. Lower Silurian System of Eastern Montgomery County; 
Prosser, C. S. Notes on the Stratigraphy of Mohawk Valley and Sara- 
toga County, N. Y. 74p. i4pl. map. May 1900. 15c. 

39 Clarke, J. M.; Simpson, G. B. & Loomis, F. B. Paleontologic Papers r. 
72p. il. i6pl. Oct. 1900. 15c. 

Contents: Clarke, J. M. .\ Remarkable Occurrence of Orthoceras in the Oneonta Beds of 

the Chenango Valley. N. Y. 
Paropsonema cryptophya; a Peculiar Echinoderm from the Intumescens-zone 

(Portage Beds) of Western New York. 

Dictyonine Hexactinellid Spongjs from the Upper Devonic of New York. 

The Water Biscuit of Squaw Island, Canandaigua Lake, N. Y. 

Simpson, G. B. Preliminary Descriptions of New Genera of Paleozoic Rugose Corals. 
Loomis, F. B. Siluric Fungi from Western New York. j 

42 Ruedemann, Rudolf. Hudson River Beds near Albany and their Taxo- 
nomic Equivalents. ii6p. apl. map. Apr. 1901. 25c. 

45 Grabau, A. W. Geology and Paleontology of Niagara Falls and Vicinity. 
2 86p. il. i8pl. map. Apr. 1901. 65c; cloth, 90c. 

48 Woodworth, J. B. Pleistocene Geology of Nassau County and Borough 
of Queens. sSp. il. 8pl. map. Dec. 1901. 25c. 

49 Ruedemann, Rudolf; Clarke, J. M. & Wood, Elvira. Paleontologic 
Papers 2. 240P. i3pl. Dec. 1901. Out of print. 

Contents: Ruedemann. Rudolf. Trenton Conglomerate of Rysedorph Hill. 

Clarke, J. M. Limestones of Central and Western New York Interbedded with Bitumi- 
nous Shales of the Marcellus Stage. 

Wood, Elvira. Marcellus Limestones of Lancaster, Erie Co., N. Y. 

Clarke, J. M. New .\gelacrinites. 

— -^ Value of Amnigenia as an Indicator of Fresh-water Deposits during the Devonic of 
New York, Ireland and the Rhineland. 

52 Clarke, J. M. Report of the State Paleontologist 1901. 28op. il. lopl. 

map, I tab. July 1902. 40c. 
56 Merrill, F. J. H. Description of the State Geologic Map of 190 i. 42p. 

2 maps, tab. Nov. 1902. Free. 


63 Clarke, J. M. & Luther, D. D. Stratigraphy of Canandaigua and Naples 

Quadrangles. 78p. map. June 1904. 25c. 
65 Clarke, J. M. (Catalogue of Type Specimens of Paleozoic Fossils in the 

Xew York State Museum. 848P. May 1903. $1.20, cloth. 
69 ■ Report of the State Paleontologist 1902. 464P. 52pl. 7 maps. Nov. 

1903. $1, clotli. 
77 Gushing, H. P. Geology of the Vicinity of Little Falls, Herkimer Co. 

98p. il. i5pl. 2 maps. Jan. 1905. 30c. 

80 Clarke, J. M. Report of the State Paleontologist 1903. 396p. 29pl. 
2 maps Feb. 1905. 85c, cloth. 

81 Clarke, J. M. & Luther, D. D. Watkins and Elmira Quadrangles. 32p. 
map. Mar. 1905. 25c. 

82 (ieologic Map of the TuUy Quadrangle. 4op. map. Apr. 1905. 20c. 

83 Woodworth, J. B. Pleistocene Geology of the Mooers Quadrangle. 62p, 
2 5pl. map. June 1905. 25c. 

84 Ancient Water Levels of the Champlain and Hudson Vallevs. 2o6p. 

il. iipl. 18 maps. July 1905. 45c. 

90 Ruedemann, Rudolf. Cephalopoda of Beekmantown and Chazy For- 
inations of Champlain Basin. 224p. il. 38pl. May 1906. 75c, cloth. 

92 Grabau, A. W. Guide to the Geology and Paleontology of the Schoharie 
Region. 3i4p. il. 26pl. map. Apr. 1906. 75c, cloth. 

95 Gushing, H. P. Geology of the Northern Adirondack Region. i88p. 
i5pl. 3 maps. Sept. 1905. 30c. 

96 Ogilvie, L H. Geology of the Paradox Lake Quadrangle. 54p. il. i7pl. 
map. Dec. 1905. 30c. 

99 Luther, D. D. Geology of the Buffalo Quadrangle. 32p. map. May 
I 1906. 20c. 

10 1 Geology of the Penn Yan-Hammondsport Quadrangles. 2 8p. 

map. July 1906. Out of print. 

106 Fairchild, H. L. Glacial Waters in the Erie Basin. 88p. i4pl 9 maps. 
Feb. 1907. Out of print. 

107 Woodworth, T- B.; Hartnagel, G. A.; Whitlock, H. P.; Hudson, G. H. ; 
Clarke, J. M.; White, David & Berkey, C. P. Geological Papers. 388?. 
54pl. map. May 1907. 90c, cloth. 

Contents: Woodworth, J. B. Postglacial Faults of Eastern New York. 
Hartnagel, C. A. Stratigraphic Relations of the Oneida Conglomerate. 

Upper Siluric and Lower Devonic Formations of the Skiinnemunk Mountain Region. 

Whitlock, H. P. Minerals from Lyon Mountain, Clinton Co. 

Hudson. G. H. On Some Pelmatozoa from the Chazy Limestone of New York. 
Clarke, J. M. Some New Devonic Fossils. 

An Interesting Style of Sand-filled Vein. 

Eurypterus Shales of the Shawangunk Mountains in Eastern New York. 

White, David. A Remarkable Fossil Tree Trunk from the Middle Devonic of New York. 
Berkey, C. P. Structural and Stratigraphic Features of the Basal Gneisses of the High- 

Ill Fairchild, H. L. Drumlins of New York. 6op. 2 8pl. 19 maps. July 
1907. Out of print. 

114 Hartnagel, C. A. Geologic Map of the Rochester and Ontario Beach 
Quadrangles. 36p. ma]). Aug. 1007. 20c. 

115 Gushing, H. P. Geology of the Long Lake Quadrangle. 8Sp. 2opl. 
map. Sept. 1907. Out of print. 

118 Clarke, J. M. & Luther, D. D. Geologic Maps and Descriptions of the 
Portage and Nunda Quadrangles including a map of Letchworth Park. 
500. i6pl. 4 maps. Jan. 1908. 35c. 

126 Miller, W. J. Geology of the Remsen Quadrangle. 54p. il. iipl. map. 
Jan. 1909. 2^c. 

127 Fairchild, H. L. Glacial Waters in Central New York. 64p. 27pl. 15 
maps. Mar. 1909. 40c. 

128 Luther, D. D. Geology of the (ieneva-Ovid Quadrangles. 44p. map. 
.•\pr. TQ09. 20c. 

135. Miller, W. I. Geology of the Port Leyden Quadrangle, Lewis County, 
X. Y. 621). il. Iipl. map. Jan. 19 10. 25c. 

137 Luther, D. D. Geology of the Auburn-Genoa Quadrangles. 36p. map. 
Mar. luio. 20c. 

138 Kemp. T. F. & Ruedemann, Rudolf. Geology of the Elizabethtown 
and Port Henry Quadrangles. iT^p. il- 2opl. 3 maps. Apr, 1910. 40c. 


145 Gushing, H. P.; Fairchild, H. L. ; Ruedemann, Rudolf & Smyth, C. H. 
Geology of the Thousand Islands Region. iy4p. il. 62pl. 6 maps. Dec. 
10 lo. 75c. 

146 Berkev, C. P. Geologic Features and Problems of the New York Citv 
(Catskill) Aqueduct. 286p. il. 38pl. maps. Feb. igii. 75c: cloth, $r. 

148 Gordon, C. E. Geology of the Poughkeepsie Quadrangle. i22p. il, 
26pl. map. Apr. igir. 30c. 

152 Luther, D. D. Geology of the Honeoye-Wayland Quadrangles. 309. 
map. Oct. 191 1. 20c. 

153 Miller, William J. Geology of the Broadalbin Quadrangle, Fulton- 
Saratoga Counties, New York. 66p. il. 8 pi. map. Dec. 19 11. 25c. 

154 Stoller, James H. Glacial Geology of the Schenectady Quadrangle. 449. 
9 pi. map. Dec. I9tr. 20c. 

159 Kemp, James F. The Mineral Springs of Saratoga. Sop. il. 3pl. Apr. 
1912. 15c. 

160 Fairchild, H. L. Glacial Waters in the Black and Mohawk Valleys. 48p. 
il. 8pl. 14 maps. May 1912. 50c. 

162 Ruedemann, Rudolf. The Lower Siluric Shales of the Mohawk Valley. 

i52p. il. I5pl. Aug. 19 1 2. 35c. 
Miller, William J. Geological History of New York State. /// press. 
Luther, D. D. Geology of the Attica and Depew Quadrangles. In press. 
Miller, Williain J. Geology of the North Creek Quadrangle. In press. 
Luther, D. D. Geology of the Phelps Quadrangle. In preparation. 
Whitnall, H. O. Geology of the Morrisville Quadrangle. Prepared. 
Hopkins, T. C. Geology of the Syracuse Quadrangle. Prepared. 
Hudson, G. H. Geology of Valcour Island. In preparation. 
Economic Geology. 3 Smock, J. C. Building Stone in the State of New 

York. i54p. Mar. 18S8. Out of frhit. 
7 First Report on the Iron Mines and Iron Ore Districts in the State 

of New York. 78p. map. June i88y. Out of print. 
10 Building Stone in New York. 2iop. map, tab. Sept. iSqo. 40c. 

11 Merrill, F. J. H. Salt and Gypsum Industries of New York. 94p. i2pl. 
2 maps, II tab. Apr. 1803. [50c] 

12 Ries, Heinrich. Clay Industries of New York, i 74p. il. ipl. inap. Mar. 
1895. 30c. 

15 Merrill, F. J. II. Mineral Resources of New York. 2 4op. 2 maps. 

Sept. 1895. [50c] 
17 Road Materials and Road Building in New York. 52p. i4pl. 

2 maps. Oct. 1897. 15c. 

30 Orton, Edward. Petroleuin and Natural Gas in New York. i3':>p. il. 

3 maps. Nov. 1890- 15c. 

35 Ries, Heinrich. Clays of New York; their Properties and Uses. 456p. 

i40pl. map. June igoo. 0:it of print. 
44 Lime and Cement Industries of New York; Eckel, E. C. Chapters 

on the Cement Industry. 332p. loipl. 2 maps. Dec. iqoi. 85c, cloth. 
■61 Dickinson, H. T. Quarries of Bluestone and Other Sandstones in New 

York. ii4p. i8pl. 2 maps. Mar. 1003. 35c. 
85 Rafter, G. W. Hydrology of New York State. 902p. il. 44pl. 5 maps. 

May 1905. $1.50, cloth. 
■93 Newland, D. H. Mining and Quarry Industry of New York. 78p. 

July 1905. Out of print. 
100 McCourt, W. E. Fire Tests of Some New York Building Stones. 4op. 

26pl. Feb. iqo6. 15c. 
102 Newland, 1). H. Mining and Quarry Industry of New York 1Q05. 

i62p. June 1Q06. 25c. 
112 Mining and Quarry Industry of New York 1906. 82p. July 

1907. Out of print. 

119 — — - & Kemp, J. F. Geology of the Adirondack Magnetic Iron Ores 
with a Report on the Mineville-Port Henry Mine Group. 184P. i4pl. 
8 maps. Apr. igo8. 35c. 

120 Newland, D. H. Mining and Quarry Industry of New York 1907. 82p. 
July 1908. Out of print. 

123 — & Hartnagel, C. A. Iron Ores of the Clinton Formation in New 

York State. 76P. il. i4pl. 3 maps. Nov. igo8. 25c. 
132 Newland, D. H. Mining and Quarry Industry of New York 1908. gSp. 

July 1909. 15c. 


142 -Mining and Quarry Industry of Xew York for 1909. gSp. Aug. 

1910. 15c. 

143 Gypsum Deposits of Xew York. 94p. 2opl. 4 maps. Oct. 1910. 


151 Mining and Quarry Industry of New York 1910. 82p. June 1911. 15c. 

161 — ■ — ■ MiningandQuarry Industry of New York 191 1. Ii4p. July 1912. 20c. 
Mineralogy. 4 Nason, F. L. Some New York Minerals and their Localities. 

2 2p. ipl. Aug. 1888. Free. 
58 Whitlock, H. P. Guide to the Mineralogic Collections of the New York 

State Museum, i.sop. il. jgpl. 11 models. Sept. 1902. 40c. 

70 New York Mineral Localities, iiop. Oct. 1903. 20c. 

98 Contributions from the Mineralogic Laboratory. 38p. 7pl. Dec. 

IQ05. Out of print. 
Zoology, I Marshall, W. B. Preliminary List of New York Unionidae . 

20 p. Mar. 1892. Free. 
9 Beaks of Unionidae Inhabiting the Vicinity of Albany, N. Y. 3op. 

I pi. Aug. 1890. Free. 
29 Miller, G. S., jr. Preliminary List of Xew York Mammals. i2 4p. Oct, 

1899. 15c. 
33 Farr, M. S. Check List of New York Birds. 224P. Apr. 1900. 25c. 
38 Miller, G. S., jr. Key to the Land Mammals of Northeastern North 

Ainerica. io6p. Oct. 1900. Out of print. 
40 Simpson, G. B. Anatomy and Physiology of Polygyra albolabris and 

Limax maximus and Embryology of Limax maximus. 82p. 28pl. Oct. 

1901. 25c. 
43 Kellogg; J. L. Clam and Scallop Industries of Xew York. 36p. 2pl. 

map. Apr. 1901. Free. 
51 Eckel, E. C. & Paulmier, F. C. Catalogue of Reptiles and Batrachians 

of New York. 64p. il. ipl. Apr. 1902. Out of print. 

Eckel, E. C. Serpents of Northeastern United States. 

Paulmier, F. C. Lizards, Tortoises and Batrachians of Xew York. 

60 Bean, T. H, Catalogue of the Fishes of New York. 784P. Feb. 1903, 
$1, cloth. 

71 Kellogg, J. L. Feeding Habits and Growth of Venus mercenaria. 3op, 
4pl. Sept. 1903. Free. 

88 Letson, Elizabeth J. Check List of the MoUusca of New York. ii6p. 

May 1905. 20c. 
91 Paulmier, P. C. Higher Crustacea of New York City. 78p. il. June 

1905. 20c. 
130 Shufeldt, R. W, Osteology of Birds. 382P. il. 26pl. May 1909. 50c. 
Entomology. 5 Lintner, J. A, White Grub of the May Beetle. 34p. il. 

Nov. 1888. Free. 

6 Cut-worms. 38p. il. Nov. 188S. Free. 

13 San Jose Scale and Some Destructive Insects of New York State, 

54p. 7pl, Apr. 1895. 15c. 
20 Felt, E. P. Elm Leaf Beetle in New York State. 46p. il. 5pl. June 

1898. Free. 

See 5 7. 

23 14th Report of the State Entomologist 189S. i5op. il. 9pl. Dec, 

1898. 20c. 
24 Memorial of the Life and Entomologic Work of J. A. Lintner Ph.D. 

State Entomologist 1874-98; Index to Entomologist's Reports 1-13. 3i6p. 

Ipl. Oct. 1899. 35c. 
Supplement to 14th report of the State Entomologist. 

26 Collection, Preservation and Distribution of New York Insects 

36p. il. Apr. 1899. Free. 

27 Shade Tree Pests in X'ew York State. 26p. il. spl. May 1899. 


31 15th Report of the State Entomologist 1899. i28p. June 1900. 

36 ■ 1 6th Report of the State Entomologist 1900. ii8p. i6pl. Mar, 

1 90 1. 25c. 
37 Catalogue of Some of the More Important Injurious and Beneficial 

Insects of New York State. 54p. il. Sept. 1900. Free. 


46 Scale Insects of Importance and a List of the Species m New York 

State. Q4p. il. i5pl. June iqoi. 25c. 

47 Needham, J. G. & Betten, Cornelius. Aquatic Insects in the Adiron- 
dacks. 234p. il. 36pl. Sept. iqoi. 45c. 

53 Felt, E. P. 17th Report of the State Entomologist 190 1. 232P. il. 6pl. 
Aug. 1Q02. Out of print. 

57 Elm Leaf Beetle in New York State. 46p. il. 8pl. Aug. 1902. 

Out of print. 

This is a revision of Bulletin 20 containing the more essential facts observed since that 
was prepared. 

59 Grapevine Root Worm. 40p. 6pl. Dec. 1902. 15c. 

See 12. 

64 i8th Report of the State Entomologist 1902. iiop. 6pl. May 

1903. 20c. 

68 Needham, J. G. & others. Aquatic Insects in New York. 322p. 52pl. 

Aug. 1903. 80c, doth. 
72 Felt, E. P. Grapevine Root Worm. sSp. i3pl. Nov. 1903. 20c. 

This is a revision of Bulletin 59 containing the more essential facts observed since that 
was prepared. 

74 & Joutel, L. H. Monograph of the Genus Saperda. 88p. i4pl. 

June 1904. 25c. 

76 Felt, E. P. 19th Report of the State Entomologist 1Q03. i5op. 4pL 

1904. 15c. 

79 Mosquitos or Culicidae of New York. i64p. il. 57pl. tab. Oct. 

1904. 40c. 
86 Needham, J. G. & others. May Flies and ]\Iidges of New York. 352p. 

il. 37pl. June 1Q05. 80c, doth. 
97 Felt, E. P. 20th Report of the State Entomologist 1904. 246P. il. i9pl. 

Nov. 1905. 40c. 

103 Gipsy and Brown Tail Moths. 44p. lopl. July 1906. 15c'. 

104 2ist Report of the State Entomologist 1905. i44p. lopl. Aug. 

1906. 25c. 

109 Tussock Moth and Elm Leaf Beetle. 34p. 8pl. Mar. 1907. 20c. 

no 22d Report of the State Entomologist 1906. i52p. 3pl. June 

1907. 23c. 

124 23d Report of the State Entomologist 1907. 542p. il. 44pl. Oct. 

1908. 75c. 

129 Control of Household Insects. 48p. il. May 1909. Out of print. 

134 24th Report of the State Entomologist 1908. 2o8p. il. i7pl. 

Sept. 1909. 35c. 
136 Control of Flies and Other Household Insects. 56p. il. Feb. 

1910. 15c. 

This is a revision of Bulletin 129 containing the more essential facts observed since 
that was prepared. 

141 Felt, E. P. 25th Report of the State Entomologist 1909. i78p. il. 22pl. 

July 1 9 10. 35c. 
147 -26111 Report of the State Entomologist 1910. i82p. il. 35pl. Mar. 

191 1. 35c. 

155" 27th Report of the State Entomologist 191 1. igSp. il. 27pl. Jan. 

1912. 40C. 

156 Elm Leaf Beetle and Wliite-Marked Tussock Moth. 35p. 8pl. Jan. 

1912. 20c. 

■ 28th Report of the State Entomologist 1912. In press. 

Needham, J. G. Monograph on Stone Flies. In preparation. 

Botany. 2 Peck, C. H. Contributions to the Botany of the State of New 

York. 72p. 2pl. May 1887. Out of print. 

8 Boleti of the United States. 98p. Sept. 1889. Out of print. 

25 Report of the State Botanist 1898. 76p. 5pl. Oct. 1899. Out of 

28 Plants of North Elba. 2o6p. map. June 1899. 20c. 

54 • Report of the State Botanist 1901. 58p. 7pl. Nov. 1902. 40c. 

67 Report of the State Botanist 1902. 196P. 5pl. May 1903. 50c. 

75 Report of the State Botanist 1903. 7op. 4pl. 1904. 40c. 

94 Report of the State Botanist 1904. bop. lopl. July 1905. ■ 40c. 










35 c. 











I i6p. 




45 c. 







9 pi. 





105 Report of the State Botanist 1905. 

116 Report of the State Botanist 1906. 

122 — - — ■ Rcyjort of the State Botanist 1907. 
131 — — - Report of the State Botanist iqo8. 

139 Report of the State Botanist iqoq. 

150 Report of the State Botanist 1910. 

157 Report of the State Botanist 191 1. 

Report of the State Botanist 1912. In press. 

Archeology. 16 Beauchamp. W. M. Aboriginal Chipped Stone Implements 

of New York. 86p. 23pl. Oct. 1897. 25c. 
18 Polished Stone Articles Used by the New York Aborigines. io4p. 

35pl. Nov. 1897. 25c. 
22 Earthenware of the New York Aborigines. 78p. 33pl. Oct. 1898. 

32 Aboriginal Occupation of New York. igop. i6pl. 2 maps. Mar. 

1900. 30C. 
41 — - — Wampum and Shell Articles Used by New York Indians. i66p. 

2 8pl. Mar. 1901. 30c. 
50 — — - Horn and Bone Implements of the New York Indians. ii2p. 43pl. 

Mar. 1902. 30c. 
55 Metallic Implements of the New York Indians. 94p. 38pl. June 

1902. 25c. 

73 — ■ — • Metallic Ornaments of the New York Indians. i22p. 37pl. Dec. 

1903. 30c. 

78 History of the New York Iroquois. 34op. i7pl. map. Feb. 1905. 

75c, cloth. 

87 Perch Lake Mounds. 84p. 12 pi. Apr. 1905. Out of print. 

89 Aboriginal Use of Wood in New York. igop. 35pl. June 1905. 


108 Aboriginal Place Names of New \ork. 336p. May 1907. 40c. 

113 — — Civil, Religious and Mourning Councils and Ceremonies of Adop- 
tion. ii8p. 7pl. June 1907. 25c. 

117 Parker, A. C. An Erie Indian Village and Burial Site. io2p. 38pl. 
Dec. 1907. 30c. 

125 Converse, H. M. & Parker, A. C. Iroquois Myths and Legends. 196P. 

iL iipl. Dec. 1908. 50c. 
144 Parker, A. C. Iroquois Uses of Maize and Other Food Plants. i2op. 

il. 3ipl. 'No\'. igio. 30c. 
163 Parker, A. C. The Code of Handsome Lake. I44p. 23pl. Nov. 1912. 25c. 
Miscellaneous. 62 Merrill, F. J. H. Directory of Natural History Museums 

in United States and Canada. 236P. Apr. 1903. 30c. 
66 Ellis, Mary. Index to Publications of the New Vork State Natural 

History Survey and New York State Museum 183 7-1 902. 4i8p. June 

1903. 75c, cloth. 

Museum memoirs 1889-date. 4to. 

1 Beechcr, C. Iv & Clarke, J. M. Development of Some Silurian Brachi- 
opoda. 96p. 8pl. Oct. 1889. $1. 

2 Hall, James & Clarke, J. M. Paleozoic Reticulate Sponges. 35op. il. 7opl. 
1898." $2, cloth. 

3 Clarke, J. M. The Oriskany Fauna of Becraft Mountain, Columbia Co., 
N. Y. i28p. 9pl. Oct. 1900. 8oc. 

4 Peck, C. H. N. Y. Edible Fungi, 1895-99. io6p. 25pl. Nov. 1900. [$1.25] 

This includes revised descriptions and illustrations of funt»i reported in the 49th, sist and 
S2d reports of the State Botanist. 

5 Clarke, J. M. & Ruedemann, Rudolf. Guelph Formation and Fauna of 
New York State, rg&p. 2ipl. July 1903. Si. 50, cloth. 

6 Clarke, J. M. Naples Fauna in Western New York. 268p. 26pl. map. 

1904. $2, cloth. 

7 Ruedemann, Rudolf. Graptolites of New York. Pt i Graptolites of the 
Lower Beds. 35op. i7pl. Feb. 1905. $1.50, cloth. 

8 Felt, E. P. Insects Affecting Park and Woodland Trees, v.r. 460P. 
il. 48pl. Feb. 1906. $2.50, c/o//j; v. 2. Feb. 1907. $2, cloth. 

9 Clarke, J. M. Early Devonic of New York and Eastern North America. 
Pt I. 366p. il. 7opl. 5 maps. Mar. 190S. $2.50, cloth; Pt 2. 250P. il. 36pl. 
4 maps. Sept. 1909. $2, cloth. 


10 Eastman, C. R. The Dcxonic Fishes of the Xew York Formations. 
236P. i5pl. 1907. $1.25, cloth. 

11 Ruedemann, Rudolf. Graptolites of Xew York. Pt 2 Graptolites of 
the Higher Beds. 584P. il. 3ipl. 2 tab. Apr. iqo8. $2.50, doth. 

12 Eaton, E. H. Birds of Xew York. v. i. 5oip. il. 42pl. Apr. lyio. 
$3, cloth; V. 2, in press. 

13 Whitlock, H. P. Calcitesof Xew'York. igop. il.27pl. Oct. 1910. $t, cloth. 

14 Clarke, J. M. & Ruedemann, Rudolf. The Eurypterida of New York. v. i. 
Text. 44op. il. v. 2 Plates. i88p. 88pl. Dec. 19 12. $4, cloth. 

Natural History of Xew York. 30 v. il. pi. maps. 4to. Albany 1842-94. 

DIVISION I ZOOLOGY. De Kay, James E. Zoology of Xew York; or, The 
New York Fauna; comprising detailed descriptions of all the animals 
hitherto observed within the State of Xew York with brief notices of 
those occasionally found near its borders, and accompanied by appropri- 
ate illustrations. 5v. il. pi. maps. sq. 4to. Albanv 1842-44. Out of print. 
Historical introduction to the series Vjy Gov. W. H. Seward. i78p. 

V. I pti Mammalia. 131 + 46p. 33pl. 1842. 
300 copies with hand-colored plates. 

V. 2 pt2 Birds. 12 -f 38op. i4ipl. 1844. 
Colored plates. 

V. 3 pt3 Reptiles and Amphibia. 7 + 98p. pt 4 Fishes. 15 + 4i5P- 1842. 

pt 3-4 bound together. 

V. 4 Plates to accompany v. 3. Reptiles and Amphibia. 23pl. Fishes. 
79pl. 1842. 
300 copies with hand-colored plates. 

V. 5 pt5 Mollusca. 4 + 271P. 4opl. pt 6 Crustacea. 7op. i3pl. 1S43-44. 
Hand-colored plates; pt5-6 bound together. 

DIVISION 2 BOTANY. Torrev, John. P^lora of the State of Xew York; com- 
prising full descriptions of all the indigenous and naturalized plants hith- 
erto discovered in the State, with remarks on their economical and medical 
properties. 2v. il. pi. sq. 4to. Albany 1843. Out oj print. 

V. I Flora of the State of Xew York. 12 + 4S4P- 72pl. 1843- 

300 copies with hand-colorcil plates. 

V. 2 Flora or the State of Xew York. 572P. 8<)pl. 1843. 
300 copies with hand-colored plates. 

DIVISION 3 MINERALOGY. Beck, Lcwis C. Mineralogy of Xew \ork; com- 
prising detailed descriptions of the minerals hitherto found in the State 
of New York, and notices of their uses in the arts and agriculture, il. pi. 
sq. 4to. Albany 1842. Out of print. 

V. I jiti Economical Mineralogv. pt2 Descriptive ^lineralogy. 24 + 5.)6p. 

8 plates additional to those printed as part of the text. 

DIVISION 4 GEOLOGY. Mather, W. W. ; Emmons, Ebenezer; Vanuxem, Lard- 
ner & Hall, James. Geology of Xew York. 4V. il. pi. sq. 4to. Albany 
1842-4^. Out of print. 

V. ipti Mather, W. W. First Geological District. 37 -f 653P. 46pl. 1843. 

V. 2 pt2 Emmons, Ebenezer. Second Geological District. 10 -f 4,1 7P- 
i7pl. 1842. 

V. 3 pt3 Vanuxem, Lardner. Third Geological District. 3o6p. 1842. 

V. 4 pt4 Hall, Janies. Fourth Geological District. 22 -h 683P. igpl. 
map. 1843. 

DIVISION 5 AGRICULTURE. Euimons, Ebciiezer. Agriculture of Xew\o_rk; 
comprising an account of the classification, composition and distribution 
of the soils and rocks and the natural waters of the different geological 
formations, together with a condensed view of the meteorology and agri- 
cultural productions of the State. 5V. il. pi. sq. 4to. Albany 1846-54. 
Out of print. 


V. I Soils of the State, their Composition and Distribution, ii + 3 7ip. 2ipL 

V. n Analysis of Soils, Plants, Cereals, etc. 8 + 343 + 46p. 42pl. 1849. 
With hand-colored plates. 

V. 3 Fruits, etc. 8 + 34op. 1851. 

V. 4 Plates to accompany v. 3. 95pl. 1851. 


V. 5 Insects Injurious to Agriculture. 8 + 272P. 5opl. 1854. 
With hand-colored plates. 

DIVISION 6 PALEONTOLOGY. Hall, James. Palaeontology of .\e\v York. 8v 

il. pi. sq. 4to. Albany 1847-94. Bound in cloth. 
V. I Organic Remains of the Lower Division of the Xew York Svstem. 

23 + 33 8p. 99pl- 1847. Out of print. 
V. 2 Organic Remains of Lower Middle Division of the Xew York System. 

8 + 362P. io4pl. 1852. Out 0} print. 
V. 3 Organic Remains of the Lower Helderberg Group and the Oriskany 

Sandstone, pt i, text. 12 + 532P. 1859. [$3.50] 

pt 2. I42pl. 1861. [$2.50] 

V. 4 Fossil Brachiopoda of the Upper Helderberg, Hamilton, Portage and 
Chemung Groups. 1 1 -f i + 428p. 69pl. 1867. $2.50. 

V. 5 pt I Lamellibranchiata i. Monomyaria of the Upper Helderbergs, 
Hamilton and Chemung Groups. 18 + 268p. 45pl. 1884. $2.50. 

Lamellibranchiata 2. Dimyaria of the Upper Helderberg, Ham- 
ilton, Portage and Chemung Groups. 62 -f 2g3p. 5ipl. 1885. $2.50. 

pt 2 Gasteropoda, Pteropoda and Cephalopoda of the Upper Helder- 
berg, Hamilton, Portage and Chemung Groups. 2 v. 1879. v. i, text. 
15 -t- 492p. ; V.2. i2opl. $2.50 for 2 v. 

& Simpson, George B. v. 6 Corals and Bryozoa of the Lower and Up- 
per Helderberg and Hamilton Groups. 24 -f 298P. 67pl. 1887. $2.50. 

& Clarke, John M. v. 7 Trilobites and Other Crustacea of the Oris- 
kany, Upper Helderberg, Hamilton, Portage, Chemung and Catskill 
Groups. 64 -f 236p. 46pl. 1S88. Cont. supplement to v. 3, pt 2. Ptero- 
poda, Cephalopoda and Annelida. 42p. i8pl. 1888. $2.50. 

& Clarke, John M. v. 8 pt i Introduction to the Study of the Genera 

of the Paleozoic Brachiopoda. 16 + 367P. 44pl. 1892. $2.50. 

& Clarke, John M. v. 8 pt 2 Paleozoic Brachiopoda. 16 + 394P. 64pl. 

1894. $2.50. 

Catalogue of the Cabinet of Natural History of the State of Xew York and 
of the Historical and Antiquarian Collection annexed thereto. 242P. 8vo. 

Handbooks 1893-date. 

New York State Museum. 52P. il. 1902. Free. 

Outlines, history and work of the museum with list of staff 1902. 

Paleontology. i2p. 1899. Out of print. 

Brief outline of State Museum work in paleontology under heads: Definition; Relation to 
biology; Relation to stratigraphy; History of paleontology in New York. 

Guide to Excursions in the Fossiliferous Rocks of Xew York. i24p. 1899. 

Itineraries of 32 trips covering nearly the entire series of Paleozoic rocks, prepared specially 
for the use of teachers and students desiring to acquaint themselves more intimately with the 
classic rocks of this State. 

Entomology. i6p. 1899. Out of print. 
Economic Geology. 44p. 1904. Free. 
Insecticides and Fungicides. 2op. 1909. Free. 

Classification of X^ew York Series of Geologic Formations. 32p. 1903. Out 
of pdnt. Revised edition. 96p. 191 2. Free. 


Geologic maps. Merrill, F. J. H. Economic and (Geologic Map of the 
State of New York; issued as part of Museum Bulletin 15 and 48th Museum 
Report, V. i. 59 x 67 cm. 1894. Scale 14 miles to i inch. 15c. 

Map of the State of New York Showing the Location of Quarries of 

Stone Used for Building and Road Metal. 1897. Out of print. 

Map of the State of New York Showing the Distribution of the Rocks 

Most Useful for Road Metal. 1897. Out of print. 

Geologic Map of New York. 1901. Scale 5 miles to i inch, hi atlas 

form $3. Lower Hudson sheet 60c. 

The lower Hudson sheet, geologically colored, comprises Rocklanii, Orange, Dutchess 
Putnam, Westchester, New York, Richmond, Kings, Queens and Nassau counties, and parts 
of Sullivan, Ulster and Suffolk counties; also northeastern New Jersey and part of western 

■ Map of New York Showing the Surface Configuration and Water Sheds 

1901. Scale 12 miles to i inch. 15c. 

Map of the State of New York Showing the Location of its Economic 

Deposits. 1904. Scale 12 miles to i inch. 15c. 

Geologic maps on the United States Geological Survey topographic base. 
Scale I in. = I m. Those marked with an asterisk have also been pub- 
lished separately. 

*Albany county. 189S. Out of print. 

Area around Lake Placid. 1898. 

Vicinity of Frankfort Hill [parts of Herkimer and Oneida counties]. 1899. 

Rockland county. 1899. 

Amsterdam quadrangle. 1900. 

*Parts of Albany and Rensselaer counties. it,oi. Ottt nj print. 

*Niagara river. 1901. 25c. 

Part of Clinton county. 1901. 

Oyster Bay and Hempstead quadrangles on Long Island. 190 1. 

Portions of Clinton and Essex counties. 1902. 

Part of town of Northumberland, Saratoga co. 1903. 

Union Springs, Cayuga county and vicinity. 1903. 

*01ean quadrangle. 1903. Free. 

♦Becraft Mt with 2 sheets of sections. (Scale i in. = h m.) 1903. 20c 

*Canandaigua-Naples quadrangles. 1904. 20c. 

*Little Falls quadrangle. 1905. Free. 

*Watkins-Elmira quadrangles. 1905. 20c. 

*Tully quadrangle. 1905. Free. 

*Salamanca quadrangle. 1905. Free. 

*Mooers quadrangle. 1905. Free. 

Paradox Lake quadrangle. 1905. 

*Buffalo quadrangle. 1906. Free. 

*Penn Yan-Hammondsport quadrangles. 1906. 20c. 

*Rochester and Ontario Beach quadrangles. 20c. 

*Long Lake quadrangle. Free. 

*Nunda-Portage quadrangles. 20c. 

*Remsen quadrangle. 1908. Free. 

*Geneva-Ovid quadrangles. 1909. 20c. 

*Port Leyden quadrangle. 19 10. Free. 

*Auburn-Genoa quadrangles. 19 10. 20c. 

*Elizabethtown and Port Henry quadrangles. 1910. 15c. 

♦Alexandria Bay quadrangle. Free. 

*Cape Vincent quadrangle. Free. 

*Clayton quadrangle. Free. 

♦Grindstone quadrangle. Free. 

♦Theresa quadrangle. Free. 

*Poughkeepsie quadrangle. Free. 

*Honeoye-Wayland quadrangle. 20c. 

*Broadalbin quadrangle. Free. 

*Schenectady quadrangle. Free.